The Science of Nature

, 104:9

A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world’s oldest penguins

  • Gerald Mayr
  • Vanesa L. De Pietri
  • R. Paul Scofield
Original Paper


We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world’s oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.


Fossil birds Sphenisciformes Waipara Greensand Waimanu Crossvallia 

Supplementary material

114_2017_1441_MOESM1_ESM.nex (14 kb)
ESM 1(NEX 13 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ornithological SectionSenckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.Canterbury MuseumChristchurchNew Zealand

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