The Science of Nature

, 103:12 | Cite as

First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group

  • Georgios L. GeorgalisEmail author
  • Andrea Villa
  • Massimo Delfino
Original Paper


The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.


Chamaeleonidae Squamata Miocene Biogeography Aliveri 



We are grateful to Wilma Wessels (University of Utrecht) and Hans de Bruijn (University of Utrecht) for the extended loan of the specimens. Walter Joyce (University of Fribourg), Dimitris Kostopoulos (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), George Koufos (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) and Zbigniew Szyndlar (Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow) provided important comments that improved the manuscript. Andrej Čerňanský (Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin) and three anonymous reviewers gave significant input that enhanced the quality of the paper. Gaetano Pitruzzella prepared the interpretative drawing of UU AL 3501 showed in Fig. 1. Project supported by Fondi di Ateneo (ex 60 %) 2013–2014 dell’ Università di Torino and Generalitat de Catalunya (2014 SGR 416 GRC). Access to the collections of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, has been made possible thanks to a Synthesys grant (FR-TAF-5007) to AV. GLG acknowledges travel funding from the University of Fribourg.

Supplementary material

114_2016_1336_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (101 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 101 kb)


  1. Álvarez Sierra MA, Daams R, van der Meulen AJ (1987) The mammals from the Lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). 7. The Eomyidae. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 90(1):47–56Google Scholar
  2. Andreone F, Mattioli F, Jesu R, Randrianirina JE (2001) Two new chameleons of the genus Calumma from north-east Madagascar, with observations on hemipenial morphology in the Calumma furcifer group (Reptilia, Squamata, Chamaeleonidae). Herpetol J 11(2):53–68Google Scholar
  3. Augé M (1997) A consideration of the phylogenetic significance of acrodonty. Herpetol J 7:111–113Google Scholar
  4. Barbadillo LJ, García-París M, Sanchiz B (1997) Orígenes y relaciones evolutivas de la herpetofauna ibérica. In: Pleguezuelos JM (ed.) Distribución y Biogeografía de los Anfibios y Reptiles en España y Portugal. Monografías de Herpetología, Vol. 3. Asociación Herpetológica Española y Universidad de Granada, pp 47–100Google Scholar
  5. Bastir M, Böhme M, Sanchiz B (2014) Middle Miocene remains of Alytes (Anura, Alytidae) as an example of the unrecognized value of fossil fragments for evolutionary morphology studies. J Vertebr Paleontol 34:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beckon WM (1992) The giant Pacific geckos of the genus Gehyra: morphological variation, distribution, and biogeography. Copeia 1992(2):443–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanc CP (1972) Les reptiles de Madagascar et des îles voisines. In: Battistini R, Vindard G (eds) Biogeography and ecology in Madagascar. Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 501–614Google Scholar
  8. Böhme M (2003) The Miocene climatic optimum: evidence from ectothermic vertebrates of Central Europe. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 195:389–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Böhme M (2010) Ectothermic vertebrates (Actinopterygii, Allocaudata, Urodela, Anura, Crocodylia, Squamata) from the Miocene of Sandelzhausen (Germany, Bavaria) and their implications for environment reconstruction and palaeoclimate. Paläontol Z 84:3–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Böhme M, Ilg A (2003) fosFARbase, (accessed 1 November 2015)
  11. Böhme W, Bonetti A, Chiras G (1998) The chameleons of the Greek mainland: taxonomic allocation and conservation needs of a second European species (Squamata: Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Herpetozoa 11(1/2):87–91Google Scholar
  12. Bolet A, Evans SE (2012) A tiny lizard (Lepidosauria, Squamata) from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Palaeontol 55(3):491–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolet A, Evans SE (2013) Fossil history of chameleons. In: Tolley KA, Herrel A (eds) The biology of chameleons. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 175–192Google Scholar
  14. Bolliger T (1992) Kleinsäugerstratigraphie der miozänen Hörnilschüttung (Ostschweiz). Dokum Natur 75:1–297Google Scholar
  15. Camp CL (1923) Classification of the lizards. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 48:289–481Google Scholar
  16. Čerňanský A (2010) A revision of chamaeleonids from the Lower Miocene of the Czech Republic with description of a new species of Chamaeleo (Squamata, Chamaeleonidae). Geobios 43:605–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Čerňanský A (2011) A revision of the chameleon species Chamaeleo pfeili Schleich (Squamata; Chamaeleonidae) with description of a new material of chamaeleonids from the Miocene deposits of southern Germany. Bulletin of Geosciences, Czech Geological Survey 86(2):275–282Google Scholar
  18. Čerňanský A (2012) The oldest known European Neogene girdled lizard fauna (Squamata, Cordylidae), with comments on Early Miocene immigration of African taxa. Geodiv 34(4):837–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Čerňanský A, Rage J-C, Klembara J (2015) The Early Miocene squamates of Amöneburg (Germany): the first stages of modern squamates in Europe. J Syst Palaeont 13(2):97–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Conrad JL (2008) Phylogeny and systematics of Squamata (Reptilia) based on morphology. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 310:1–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cope ED (1864) On the characters of the higher groups of Reptilia Squamata—and especially of the Diploglossa. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philad 1864:224–231Google Scholar
  22. Cornette R, Herrel A, Stoetzel E, Moulin S, Hutterer R, Denys C, Baylac M (2015) Specific information levels in relation to fragmentation patterns of shrew mandibles: do fragments tell the same story? J Archaeol Sci 53:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crottini A, Miralles A, Glaw F, Harris DJ, Lima A, Vences M (2012) Description of a new pygmy chameleon (Chamaeleonidae: Brookesia) from central Madagascar. Zootaxa 3490:63–74Google Scholar
  24. Daudin FF (1802) Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles; ouvrage faisant suit à l’Histoire naturelle générale et particulière, composée par Leclerc de Buffon; et rédigee par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes, vol. 4, F Dufart, ParisGoogle Scholar
  25. de Bruijn H, van der Meulen AJ, Katsikatsos G (1980) The mammals from the Lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). Part 1: the Sciuridae. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 83(3):241–261Google Scholar
  26. Delfino M, Kotsakis T, Arca M, Tuveri C, Pitruzzella G, Rook L (2008) Agamid lizards from the Plio-Pleistocene of Sardinia (Italy) and an overview of the European fossil record of the family. Geodiv 30(3):641–656Google Scholar
  27. Delfino M, Rage J-C, Bolet A, Alba DM (2013) Early Miocene dispersal of the lizard Varanus into Europe: reassessment of vertebral material from Spain. Act Palaeontol Pol 58(4):731–735Google Scholar
  28. Dimaki M, Valakos ED, Legakis A (2000) Variation in body temperatures of the African Chameleon, Chamaeleo africanus Laurenti, 1768 and the Common Chameleon, Chamaeleo chamaeleon (Linnaeus, 1758). Belg J Zool 130(Suppl):89–93Google Scholar
  29. Dimaki M, Hundsdörfer AK, Fritz U (2008) Eastern Mediterranean chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon, Ch. africanus) are distinct. Amphibia-Reptilia 29:535–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dimaki M, Chondropoulos B, Legakis A, Valakos E, Vergetopoulos M (2015) New data on the distribution and population density of the African Chameleon, Chamaeleo africanus and the Common Chameleon, Chamaeleo chamaeleon in Greece. Hyla 2015(1):36–43Google Scholar
  31. Dollion AY, Cornette R, Tolley KA, Boistel R, Euriat A, Boller E, Fernandez V, Stynder D, Herrel A (2015) Morphometric analysis of chameleon fossil fragments from the Early Pliocene of South Africa: a new piece of the chamaeleonid history. Sci Nat 102:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doukas CS (1986) The mammals from the Lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). Part 5. The insectivores. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 89(1):15–38Google Scholar
  33. Doukas CS (2003) The MN4 faunas of Aliveri and Karydia (Greece). Coloq Paleontol 1(2003):127–132Google Scholar
  34. Estes R (1983) Sauria Terrestria, Amphisbaenia. Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology, part 10a. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Estes R, de Queiroz K, Gauthier J (1988) Phylogenetic relationships within Squamata. In: Estes R, Pregill G (eds) Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families: essays commemorating Charles L Camp. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp 99–118Google Scholar
  36. Evans SE, Klembara J (2005) A choristoderan reptile (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Lower Miocene of Northwest Bohemia (Czech Republic). J Vertebr Paleont 25:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fejfar O, Schleich HH (1994) Ein Chamäleonfund aus dem unteren Orleanium des Braunkohlen-Tagebaus Merkur-Nord (Nordböhmen). Cour Forschungsinst Senck 173:167–173Google Scholar
  38. Fisher RN (1997) Dispersal and evolution of the Pacific Basin gekkonid lizards Gehyra oceanica and Gehyra mutilata. Evol 51(3):906–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Forskål P (1775) Descriptiones animalium, avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium; quae in itinere Orientali observavit Petrus Forskål. Möller, HauniaGoogle Scholar
  40. Gasc JP, Cabela A, Crnobrnja-Isailovic J, Dolmen D, Grossenbacher K, Haffner P, Lescure J, Martens H, Martinez Rica JP, Maurin H, Oliviera E, Sofianidou TS, Veith M, Zuiderwijk A (1997) Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Societas Europea Herpetologica and Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, ParisGoogle Scholar
  41. Gauthier JA, Kearney M, Maisano JA, Rieppel O, Behlke ADB (2012) Assembling the squamate tree of life: perspectives from the phenotype and the fossil record. Bull Peab Mus Nat Hist 53:3–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gehring P-S, Pabijan M, Ratsoavina FM, Köhler J, Vences M, Glaw F (2010) A Tarzan yell for conservation: a new chameleon, Calumma tarzan sp. n., proposed as a flagship species for the creation of new nature reserves in Madagascar. Salamandra 46(3):167–179Google Scholar
  43. Gehring P-S, Ratsoavina FM, Vences M, Glaw F (2011) Calumma vohibola, a new chameleon species (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the littoral forests of eastern Madagascar. Afr J Herpetol 60(2):130–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Georgalis GL, Kear BP (2013) The fossil turtles of Greece: an overview of taxonomy and distribution. Geobios 46:299–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Georgalis GL, Velitzelos E, Velitzelos D, Kear BP (2013) Nostimochelone lampra gen. et sp. nov., an enigmatic new podocnemidoidean turtle from the Lower Miocene of northern Greece. In: Brinkman D, Holroyd P, Gardner J (eds) Morphology and evolution of turtles: papers in honor of Eugene S Gaffney. Vol 3. Pleurodires. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gheerbrandt E, Rage J-C (2006) Palaeobiogeography of Africa: how distinct from Gondwana and Laurasia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 241:224–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glaw F (2015) Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Vertebr Zool 65(2):167–246Google Scholar
  48. Glaw F, Vences M (1994) A field guide to amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar. 3rd ed, Vences and Glaw Verlag, Koln, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  49. Glaw F, Köhler JR, Townsend TM, Vences M (2012) Rivaling the world’s smallest reptiles: discovery of miniaturized and microendemic new species of leaf chameleons (Brookesia) from northern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 7(2):e31314PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gray JE (1825) A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and amphibia, with a description of some new species. An Phil 10:193–217Google Scholar
  51. Greenbaum E, Tolley KA, Joma A, Kusamba C (2012) A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia), from the northern Albertine Rift, Central Africa. Herpetol 68(1):60–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Haas G (1952) The fauna of layer B of the Abu Usba Cave. Isr Expl J 2:35–47Google Scholar
  53. Hillenius D (1959) The differentiation within the genus Chamaeleo Laurenti 1768. Beaufortia 8(89):1–92Google Scholar
  54. Hillenius D (1978a) Notes on chameleons. IV: A new chameleon from the Miocene of Fort Ternan, Kenya (Chamaeleonidae, Reptilia). Beaufortia 28:9–15Google Scholar
  55. Hillenius D (1978b) Notes on chameleons. V: the chameleons of North Africa and adjacent countries, Chamaeleo chamaeleon (Linnaeus) (Sauria, Chamaeleonidae). Beaufortia 28:37–55.Google Scholar
  56. Hooijer DA (1961) The fossil vertebrates of Ksâr’Akil, a Palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon. Zool Verh 49:3–67Google Scholar
  57. Hou L (1976) New materials of Palaeocene lizards of Anhui. Vertebr Palasiat 14(1):48–52Google Scholar
  58. Klaver CJJ (1977) Comparative lung-morphology in the genus Chamaeleo Laurenti, 1768 (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) with a discussion of taxonomic and zoogeographic implications. Beaufortia 25(327):167–199Google Scholar
  59. Klein Hofmeijer G, de Bruijn H (1985) The mammals from the lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece)—the Spalacidae and Anomalomyidae. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 88:185–198Google Scholar
  60. Klein Hofmeijer G, de Bruijn H (1988) The mammals from the Lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). Part 8: the Cricetidae. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 91(2):185–204Google Scholar
  61. Kosuch J, Vences M, Böhme W (1999) Mitochondrial DNA sequence data support the allocation of Greek mainland chameleons to Chamaeleo africanus. Amph-Rept 20:440–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koufos GD (2006a) Palaeoecology and chronology of the Vallesian (late Miocene) in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 234(2–4):127–145Google Scholar
  63. Koufos GD (2006b) The Neogene mammal localities of Greece: faunas, chronology, and biostratigraphy. An Geol Pays Hel 4:183–214Google Scholar
  64. Koufos GD, Zouros N, Mourouzidou O (2003) Prodeinotherium bavaricum (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from Lesvos island, Greece; the appearance of deinotheres in the Eastern Mediterranean. Geobios 36:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Koufos GD, Kostopoulos D, Vlachou T (2005) Neogene/Quaternary mammalian migrations in Eastern Mediterranean. Belg J Zool 135(2):181–190Google Scholar
  66. Kumazawa Y (2007) Mitochondrial genomes from major lizard families suggest their phylogenetic relationships and ancient radiations. Gene 388:19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Laurenti JN (1768) Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Joan Thomae, ViennaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lehmann T (2009) Phylogeny and systematics of the Orycteropodidae (Mammalia, Tubulidentata). Zool J Linn Soc 155:649–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Linnaeus C (1758) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, 10th edn. Laurentius Salvius, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  70. López Martinez N (1986) The mammals from the lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). 6. The ochotonid lagomorph Albertona balkanica n. gen. n. sp. and its relationships. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 89(2):177–194Google Scholar
  71. Mangili G (1980) Fossils reptiles of Simonelli cave. Accad Naz Lincei Probl Attu Sc Cult Quaderno 249:121–122Google Scholar
  72. Maul LC, Smith KT, Barkai R, Barash A, Karkanas P, Shahack-Gross R, Gopher A (2011) Microfaunal remains at Middle Pleistocene Qesem Cave, Israel: preliminary results on small vertebrates, environment and biostratigraphy. J Hum Evol 60(4):464–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Młynarski M, Szyndlar Z, Estes R, Sanchiz B (1982) Lower vertebrate fauna from the Miocene of Opole (Poland). Estud Geol 38:103–119Google Scholar
  74. Moody S, Roček Z (1980) Chamaeleo caroliquarti (Chamaeleonidae, Sauria) a new species from the Lower Miocene of central Europe. Věstnik Ústředniho Ustavu Geologického 55:85–92Google Scholar
  75. Mörs T (2002) Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of continental Tertiary vertebrate faunas in the Lower Rhine Embayment (NW-Germany). Neth J Geosc, Geol Mijn 81:177–183Google Scholar
  76. Mörs T, von der Hocht F, Wutzler B (2000) Die erste Wirbeltierfauna aus der miozänen Braunkohle der niederrheinischen Bucht (Ville-Schichten, Tagebau Hambach). Paläontol Z 74:145–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nečas P, Modry D, Slapeta JR (2003) Chamaeleo (Trioceros) narraioca n. sp. (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae), a new chameleon species from a relict montane forest of Mount Kulal, northern Kenya. Trop Zool 16(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nečas P, Modry D, Slapeta JR (2005) Chamaeleo (Triceros) ntunte n. sp., a new chamaeleon species from Mt. Nyiru, northern Kenya (Squamata: Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Herpetozoa 18(3/4):125–132Google Scholar
  79. Nečas P, Sindaco R, Kořený L, Kopečná J, Malonza PK, Modry D (2009) Kinyongia asheorum sp. n., a new montane chameleon from the Nyiro Range, northern Kenya (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 2028:41–50Google Scholar
  80. Oppel M (1811) Die Ordnungen, Familien, und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodrom einer Naturgeschichte derselben. Joseph Lindauer, MünchenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pickford M (1986) Sediment and fossil preservation in the Nyanza Rift system of Kenya. Geol Soc Spec Pub 25:345–362Google Scholar
  82. Pregill GK, Steadman DW (2004) South Pacific iguanas: human impacts and a new species. J Herpetol 38(1):15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Prieto J, Böhme M, Maurer H, Heissig K, Abdul-Aziz H (2009) Biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Fluviatile Untere Serie (Early and Middle Miocene) in the central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin: implications for palaeoenvironment and climate. Int J Earth Sci 98(7):1767–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pyron RA, Burbrink FT, Wiens JJ (2013) A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes. BMC Evol Biol 13:93PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rage J-C (1984) Serpentes. Handbuch der Palaeoherpetologie, Part 11. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Rage J-C, Bailon S (2011) Amphibia and Squamata. In: Harrison T (ed) Paleontology and geology of Laetoli: human evolution in context, vol 2, Fossil hominins and the associated fauna. Springer, New York, pp 467–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rage J-C, Szyndlar Z (2005) Latest Oligocene-Early Miocene in Europe: Dark Period for booid snakes. Compt R Pal 4:428–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Raselimanana AP, Rakotomalala D (2003) Chamaeleonidae, chamaeleons. In: Goodman SM, Benstead JP (eds) The natural history of Madagascar. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 960–969Google Scholar
  89. Rato C, Carranza S, Perera A, Carretero MA, Harris DJ (2010) Conflicting patterns of nucleotide diversity between mtDNA and nDNA in the Moorish gecko, Tarentola mauritanica. Mol Phyl Evol 56:962–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rato C, Carranza A, Harris DJ (2011) When selection deceives phylogeographic interpretation: the case of the Mediterranean house gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Linnaeus, 1758). Mol Phyl Evol 58:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Raxworthy CJ, Forstner MRJ, Nussbaum RA (2002) Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal. Nature 415:784–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Reeder TW, Townsend TM, Mulcahy DG, Noonan BP, Wood PL Jr, Sites JWJ, Wiens JJ (2015) Integrated analyses resolve conflicts over squamate reptile phylogeny and reveal unexpected placements for fossil taxa. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0118199PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rieppel O, Walker A, Odhiambo I (1992) A preliminary report on a fossil chamaeleonine (Reptilia: Chamaeleoninae) skull from the Miocene of Kenya. J Herpet 26(1):77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Roček Z (1984) Lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) from the Lower Miocene locality Dolnice (Bohemia, Czechoslovakia). Rozpr Českosl Akad věd, řad matem přír věd 94(1):3–64Google Scholar
  95. Rögl F (1999) Mediterranean and Paratethys. Facts and hypotheses of an Oligocene to Miocene paleogeography (short overview). Geol Carpat 50:330–349Google Scholar
  96. Römer F (1870) Über Python euboicus, eine fossile Riesenschlange aus tertiärem Kalkschiefer von Kumi auf der Insel Euboea. Z Deuts Geol Ges 22:582–590Google Scholar
  97. Schleich HH (1983) Die mittelmiozane Fossil-Lagerstätte Sandelzhausen 13. Chamaeleo bavaricus sp. nov., ein neuer Nachweis aus dem Jungtertiär Süddeutschlands. Mitt Bayer Staatssamml Paläontol Hist Geol 23:77–81Google Scholar
  98. Schleich HH (1984) Neue Reptilienfunde aus dem Tertiär Deutschlands 2. Chamaeleo pfeili sp. nov., von der untermiozänen Fossilfundstelle Rauscheröd/Niederbayern (Reptilia, Sauria Chamaeleonidae). Mitt Bayer Staatssamml Paläontol Hist Geol 24:97–103Google Scholar
  99. Schleich HH (1994) Neue Reptilienfunde aus dem Tertiär Deutschlands 15. Neue Funde fossiler Chamäleonen aus dem Neogen Süddeutschlands. Cour Forschungsinst Senckenb 173:175–195Google Scholar
  100. Schmidt-Kittler N (1983) The mammals from the Lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). 3. On a new species of Sivanasua Pilgrim, 1931 (Feliforma, Carnivora) and the phylogenetic position of this genus. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 86(3):301–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sillero N, Campos J, Bonardi A, Corti C, Creemers R, Crochet P-A, Crnobrnja Isailović J, Denoël M, Ficetola GF, Gonçalves J, Kuzmin S, Lymberakis P, de Pous P, Rodríguez A, Sindaco R, Speybroeck J, Toxopeus B, Vieites DR, Vences M (2014) Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe. Amphibia-Reptilia 35:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Simões TR, Wilner E, Caldwell MW, Weinschütz LC, Kellner AWA (2015) A stem acrodontan lizard in the Cretaceous of Brazil revises early lizard evolution in Gondwana. Nat Com 6:8149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sindaco R, Jeremčenko V (2008) The reptiles of the western Palearctic. Vol. 1: annotated checklist and distributional atlas of the turtles, crocodiles, amphisbaenians and lizards of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia. In: Belvedere (ed) Monografie della Societas Herpetologica Italica - IGoogle Scholar
  104. Sperone E, Crescente A, Brunelli E, Paolillo G, Tripepi S (2010) Sightings and successful reproduction of allochthonous reptiles in Calabria. Act Herpetol 5(2):265–273Google Scholar
  105. Stipala J, Lutzmann N, Malonza PK, Borghesio L, Wilkinson P, Godley B, Evans MR (2011) A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from the highlands of northwest Kenya. Zootaxa 3002:1–16Google Scholar
  106. Stipala J, Lutzmann N, Malonza PK, Wilkinson P, Godley B, Nyamache J, Evans MR (2012) A new species of chameleon (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the Aberdare Mountains in the central highlands of Kenya. Zootaxa 3391:1–22Google Scholar
  107. Szyndlar Z (1991) A review of Neogene and Quaternary snakes of Central and Eastern Europe. Part I: Scolecophidia, Boidae, Colubrinae. Est Geol 47:103–126Google Scholar
  108. Szyndlar Z, Rage J-C (1990) West Palearctic cobras of the genus Naja (Serpentes: Elapidae): interrelationships among extinct and extant species. Amphibia-Reptilia 11:385–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Szyndlar Z, Rage J-C (2003) Non-erycine Booidea from the Oligocene and Miocene of Europe. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals. Polish Academy of Sciences, CracowGoogle Scholar
  110. Talavera R, Sanchíz F (1983) Restos pliocénicos de Camaleón común, Chamaeleo chamaeleon (L.) de Málaga. Bol Real Soc Esp Hist Nat (Geolo) 81:81–84Google Scholar
  111. Tassy P (1990) The “Proboscidean datum event”: how many proboscideans and how many events. In: Lindsay EH, Fahlbusch V, Mein P (eds) European Neogene mammal chronology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 237–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Teyssier J, Saenko SV, van der Marel D, Milinkovitch MC (2015) Photonic crystals cause active colour change in chameleons. Nat Com 6:6368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tilbury CR, Tolley KA (2015) Contributions to the herpetofauna of the Albertine Rift: two new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from an isolated montane forest, south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Zootaxa 3905:345–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tolley KA, Menegon M (2013) Evolution and biogeography of chameleons. In: Tolley KA, Herrel A (eds) The biology of chameleons. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 131–147Google Scholar
  115. Tolley KA, Chase BM, Forest F (2008) Speciation and radiations track climate transitions since the Miocene climatic optimum: a case study of southern African chameleons. J Biogeogr 35:1402–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tolley KA, Townsend TM, Vences M (2013) Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification. Proc R Soc B 280:20130184PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Townsend T, Larson A, Louis EJ, Macey JR (2004) Molecular phylogenetics of Squamata: the position of snakes, amphisbaenians, and dibamids, and the root of the squamate tree. Syst Biol 53:735–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Townsend TM, Mulcahy DG, Noonan BP, Sites JW Jr, Kuczynski CA, Wiens JJ, Reeder TW (2011) Phylogeny of iguanian lizards inferred from 29 nuclear loci, and a comparison of concatenated and species-tree approaches for an ancient, rapid radiation. Mol Phyl Evol 61:363–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. van Den Hoek Ostende LW, Mayda S, Oliver A, Madern A, Hernández-Ballarín V, Peláez-Campomanes P (2015) Aliveri revisited, a biogeographical appraisal of the early Miocene mammals from the eastern Mediterranean. Palaeobiod Palaeoenv 95:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. van der Meulen AJ, de Bruijn H (1982) The mammals from the Lower Miocene of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). Part 2. The Gliridae. Proc Koninkl Nederl Akad Wetensc Ser B 85(4):485–524Google Scholar
  121. Vidal N, Hedges SB (2009) The phylogeny of squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes. C R Biol 328:1000–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wiens JJ, Brandley MC, Reeder TW (2006) Why does a trait evolve multiple times within a clade? Repeated evolution of snake-like body form in squamate reptiles. Evol 61:123–141Google Scholar
  123. Wiens JJ, Hutter CR, Mulcahy DG, Noonan BP, Townsend TM, Sites JW, Reeder TW (2012) Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species. Biol Lett 8:1043–1046PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zarcone G, Petti FM, Cillari A, Di Stefano P, Guzzetta D, Nicosia U (2010) A possible bridge between Adria and Africa: new palaeobiogeographic and stratigraphic constraints on the Mesozoic palaeogeography of the Central Mediterranean area. Earth-Sci Rev 103:154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zug GR, Hamilton AM, Austin CC (2011) A new Emoia samoensis group lizard (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, South-central Pacific. Zootaxa 2675:47–57Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgios L. Georgalis
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andrea Villa
    • 2
  • Massimo Delfino
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeosciencesUniversity of Fribourg/FreiburgFribourgSwitzerland
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di TorinoTorinoItaly
  3. 3.Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel CrusafontUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations