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The Science of Nature

, 102:40 | Cite as

Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae)

  • Lihong Jiao
  • Kaushalya Amunugama
  • Matthew B. Hayes
  • Michael Jennings
  • Azriel Domingo
  • Chen Hou
Original Paper

Abstract

Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

Keywords

Food restriction Energy budget Scaling law Growth Manduca sexta 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the careful reviews and suggestions of three anonymous reviewers. We would like to thank Dr. Rex Gerald for his help with measuring combustion energy content of larval tissue and feces, Dr. Toomas Tammaru and Dr. Douglas Glazier for their excellent suggestions that helped to develop the hypothesis, and Dr. Wenyun Zuo for her enlightening discussion.

Supplementary material

114_2015_1289_MOESM1_ESM.docx (172 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 172 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lihong Jiao
    • 1
  • Kaushalya Amunugama
    • 1
  • Matthew B. Hayes
    • 1
  • Michael Jennings
    • 1
  • Azriel Domingo
    • 1
  • Chen Hou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological ScienceMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUSA

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