, Volume 101, Issue 4, pp 291–303

Frugal cannibals: how consuming conspecific tissues can provide conditional benefits to wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus)

  • Dale M. Jefferson
  • Keith A. Hobson
  • Brandon S. Demuth
  • Maud C. O. Ferrari
  • Douglas P. Chivers
Original Paper


Tadpoles show considerable behavioral plasticity. When population densities become high, tadpoles often become cannibalistic, likely in response to intense competition. Conspecific tissues are potentially an ideal diet by composition and should greatly improve growth and development. However, the potential release of alarm cues from the tissues of injured conspecifics may act to deter potential cannibals from feeding. We conducted multiple feeding experiments to test the relative effects that a diet of conspecifics has on tadpole growth and development. Results indicate that while conspecific tissues represent a better alternative to starvation and provide some benefits over low-protein diets, such a diet can have detrimental effects to tadpole growth and/or development relative to diets of similar protein content. Additionally, tadpoles raised individually appear to avoid consuming conspecific tissues and may continue to do so until they suffer from the effects of starvation. However, tadpoles readily fed upon conspecific tissues immediately when raised with competitors. These results suggest that cannibalism may occur as a result of competition rather than the specific quality of available diets, unless such diets lead to starvation.


Cannibalism Competition Density Diet Tadpole Lithobates sylvaticus 

Supplementary material

114_2014_1156_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (89 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 89 kb)
114_2014_1156_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (334 kb)
ESM 2(PDF 334 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dale M. Jefferson
    • 1
  • Keith A. Hobson
    • 2
  • Brandon S. Demuth
    • 1
  • Maud C. O. Ferrari
    • 3
  • Douglas P. Chivers
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Environment CanadaSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Sciences WCVMUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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