, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 33–45 | Cite as

Comparisons of dental morphology in river stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) with new fossils from the middle Eocene of Peruvian Amazonia rekindle debate on their evolution

  • Sylvain AdnetEmail author
  • Rodolfo Salas Gismondi
  • Pierre-Olivier Antoine
Original Paper


Endemic South American river stingrays (Potamotrygonidae), which include the most diversified living freshwater chondrichthyans, were conspicuously absent from pre-Neogene deposits in South America despite the fact that recent phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest an older origination for this clade. To date, the rare representatives of this family were mostly represented by ambiguous isolated remains. Here, we report 67 isolated fossil teeth of a new obligate freshwater dasyatoid (Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp) from the fossiliferous level CTA-27 (Yahuarango Formation), near Contamana, in the Peruvian Amazonia. We assigned this sample to a new representative of Potamotrygon by comparison with numerous fresh jaws of living specimens of Potamotrygonidae, thus providing the first detailed review of dental morphology for this poorly understood clade. These new fossils fill a long stratigraphic gap by extending the family range down to the middle Eocene (∼41 Mya). Moreover, the relative modernity and diversity in tooth morphology among Eocene freshwater stingrays (including Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp. and coeval North American dasyatoids) indicate that the hypothetically marine ancestor of potamotrygonids probably invaded the rivers earlier than in the middle Eocene. The first potamotrygonids and affiliates were possibly more generalized and less endemic than now, which is consistent with an opportunistic filling of vacated ecospace.


Potamotrygonidae Palaeogene Neotropics Evolution Freshwater adaptation Biogeography 



We are grateful to the staff of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, for their willingness to provide all the specimens available in the collection. We would particularly like to thank Frederik Mollen (Elasmobranch Research, Belgium) who has been involved in collecting specimens and gracefully opened his private collections. We warmly thank the Canaan Shipibo Native Community and Maple Gas Peru S.A. for access to the field. We are much indebted to Tyson Roberts for fruitful discussion on river stingrays as well as to the handling editor (Sven Thatje) and two anonymous reviewers for improving significantly a previous version of the manuscript. This is ISE-M article 2013-178.

Supplementary material

114_2013_1127_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 18 kb)


  1. Almeida MP, Lins PMO, Charvet-Almeida P, Bartem RB (2010) Diet of the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) on Marajó island (Pará, Brazil). Braz J Biol 70:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoine P-O, Marivaux L, Croft DA, Billet G, Ganerød M, Jaramillo C, Martin T, Orliac MJ, Tejada J, Duranthon F, Fanjat G, Rousse S, Salas-Gismondi R (2012) Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography. P Roy Soc B-Biol Sci 279:1319–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aschliman NC, Nishida M, Miya M, Inoue JG, Rosana KM, Naylor GJ (2012) Body plan convergence in the evolution of skates and rays (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). Mol Phylogenet Evol 63:28–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonaparte CL (1832-41) Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. T. III Pesci. RomaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bragança RB (2002) Observações sobre a alimentação das raias de água doce Potamotrygon orbignyi, Potamotrygon scobina e Plesiotrygon iwamae (Chondricthyes: Potamotrygonidae) na Ilha de Cotijuba –Baía de Marajó - Pará - Brasil. Belém. Dissertation, Universidade Federal do ParáGoogle Scholar
  6. Brito PM, Deynat PP (2004) Freshwater stingrays from the Miocene of South America with comments on the rise of potamotrygonids (Batoidea, Myliobatiformes). In: Arratia G et al (eds) Recent advances in the origin and early radiation of vertebrates. Verlag Pfeil F, München, pp 575–582Google Scholar
  7. Brooks DR, Thorson TB, Mayes MA (1981) Fresh-water stingrays (Potamotrygonidae) and their helminth parasites: testing hypothesis of evolution and coevolution. In: Funck VA, Brooks DR (eds) Advances in cladistics, Proceedings of the First Meeting of the Willi Hening Society. Botanical garden, New York, pp 147–175Google Scholar
  8. Cappetta H (1975) Sur quelques sélaciens nouveaux du Crétacé supérieur de Bolivie (Amérique du Sud). Geobios 8:5–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cappetta H (1982) Revision de Cestracion duponti Winkler, 1874 (Selachii, Batomorphii) du Bruxellien de Woluwe-Lambert (Eocene moyen de Belgique). Contr Tertiary Quat Geol 19:113–125Google Scholar
  10. Cappetta H (1987) Chondrichthyes II: Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii. In: Schultze H-P (ed) Handbook of paleoichthyology, 3B. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 1–193Google Scholar
  11. Cappetta H (1991) Upper Cretaceous selachian faunas from Bolivia: new data and summary. In: Suárez-Soruco I (ed) Fósiles y Facies de Bolivia, Verebrados, Re Téc YPFB 12:435–439Google Scholar
  12. Cappetta H (2012) Chondrichthyes II: Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii: teeth. In: Schultze H-P (ed) Handbook of paleoichthyology, 3E. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 1–512Google Scholar
  13. Cappetta H, Gayet M (2013) A new elasmobranch genus (Myliobatiformes, Dasyatoidea) from the Danian of Potosí (Bolivia). Neues Jahrb Geol P-A 269:285–290Google Scholar
  14. Case GR (1981) Late Eocene selachians from south-central Georgia. Palaeontogr Abt A 176:52–79Google Scholar
  15. Chabaneau P (1923) Description de deux plagiostomes nouveaux d’Indo-Chine, appartenant au genre Dasyatus (Trygon). Bull Mus Nat Hist Nat 29:558–559Google Scholar
  16. Charvet-Almeida P (2006) Historia natural e conservação das raias de água doce (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae) no médio Rio Xingu, área de influência do projeto hidrelétrico de Belo Monte (Pará, Brasil). Unpubl. PhD thesis, dissertation, Universidade Federal da ParaíbaGoogle Scholar
  17. Claeson KM, O’Leary MA, Roberts EM, Sissoko F, Bouaré M, Tapanila L, Goodwin D, Gottfried MD (2010) First Mesozoic record of the stingray Myliobatis wurnoensis from Mali and a phylogenetic analysis of Myliobatidae incorporating dental characters. Acta Palaeontol Pol 55:655–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Compagno LJV (1973) Interrelationships of living elasmobranchs. In: Greewod PH, Miles RS, Patterson C (eds) Interrelationships of fishes. Zool J Lin Soc-Lond Supp. 1:15–61Google Scholar
  19. Compagno LJV, Cook SF (1995) The exploitation and conservation of freshwater elasmobranches: status of taxa and prospects for the future. In: Oetinger MD, Zorzi GD (eds) The biology of freshwater elasmobranchs. J Aquaricult Aquat Sci 7:62–90Google Scholar
  20. Compagno LJV, Roberts T (1982) Freshwater stingrays (Dasyatidae) of southeast Asia and New Guinea, with description of a new species of Himantura and reports of unidentified species. Environ Bio Fish 7:321–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cvancara AM, Hoganson JW (1993) Vertebrates of the cannonball formation (Paleocene) in the North and South Dakota. J Vertebr Paleontol 13:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Carvalho MR, Lovejoy NR (2011) Morphology and phylogenetic relationships of a remarkable new genus and two new species of Neotropical freshwater stingrays from the Amazon basin (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae). Zootaxa 2776:13–48Google Scholar
  23. de Carvalho MR, Ragno MP (2011) An unusual, dwarf new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray, Plesiotrygon nana sp. nov., from the upper and mid Amazon basin: the second species of Plesiotrygon (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 51:101–138Google Scholar
  24. de Carvalho MR, Lovejoy NR, Rosa RS (2003) Family Potamotrygonidae. In: Reis RE, Ferraris CJ Jr, Kullander SO (eds) Checklist of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, pp 22–29Google Scholar
  25. de Carvalho MR, Maisey JG, Grande L (2004) Freshwater stingrays of the Green River Formation of Wyoming (Early Eocene), with the description of a new genus and species and an analysis of its phylogenetic relationships (Chondrichthyes, Myliobatiformes). Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 284:1–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Deynat P (2006) Potamotrygon marinae n. sp., une nouvelle espèce de raies d’eau douce de Guyane (Myliobatiformes, Potamotrygonidae). C R Biol 329:483–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deynat PP, Brito PM (1994) Révision des tubercules cutanés de raies (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea) du Bassin du Paraná, Tertiaire d’Amérique du Sud. Ann Paleontol (Vertébrés-Invertébrés) 80:237–251Google Scholar
  28. Dingerkus G (1995) Relationships of potamotrygonin stingrays (Chondrichthyes, Batiformes, Myliobatidae). J Aquaricult Aquat Sci 7:32–37Google Scholar
  29. Duméril A (1865) Histoire naturelle des poisons ou ichthyologie générale. Elasmobranches plagiostomes et holocéphales ou chimères. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Feibel CS (1993) Freshwater stingray from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia. Lethaia 26:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frailey CD (1986) Late Miocene and Holocene mammals, exclusive of Notongulata, of the Rio Acre region, western Amazonia. Contrib Sci (Nat Hist Mus Los Angel County) 364:1–46Google Scholar
  32. Garman S (1877) On the pelvis and external sexual organs of selachians, with special reference to the new genera Potamotrygon and Disceus. Proc Boston Soc Nat Hist 19:197–215Google Scholar
  33. Garman S (1913) The Plagiostomia (sharks, skates and rays). Mem Mus Comp Zool 36:1–515Google Scholar
  34. Gayet M, Marshall LG, Sempéré T (1991) The Mesozoic and Paleocene vertebrates of Bolivia and their stratigraphica context: a review. In: Suárez-Soruco I (ed) Fósiles y Facies de Bolivia. Verebrados, Re Téc YPFB 12:393–433Google Scholar
  35. Gayet M, Sempéré T, Cappetta H, Jaillard E, Lévy A (1993) La présence de fossiles marins dans le Crétacé terminal des Andes centrales et ses conséquences paléogéographiques. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 102:283–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gayet M, Marshall LG, Sempéré T, Meunier FJ, Cappetta H, Rage J-C (2001) Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajsha Pata (Bolivia) biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 169:39–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gheerbrant E, Rage J-C (2006) Paleobiogeography of Africa: how distinct from Gondwana and Laurasia? Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 241:224–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Herman J, Hovestadt-Euler M, Hovestadt DC, Stehmann M (1999) Contributions to the study of the comparative morphology of teeth and other relevant ichthyodorulites in living supraspecific taxa of chondrichthyan fishes. Part B: Batomorphii. No.4b: order Rajiformes - suborder Myliobatoidei - superfamily Dasyatoidea - family Dasyatididae - subfamily Dasyatinae - genus: Taeniura, Urogymnus, Urolophoides - subfamily Potamotrygoninae - genera: Disceus, Pleisiotrygon, and Potamotrygon (incl. supraspecific taxa of uncertain status and validity), family Urolophidae - Trygonoptera, Urolophus and Urotrygon - superfamily Myliobatidea - family: Gymnuridae - genus: Aetoplatea. Bull Inst R Sci N Belg, Biologie 69:161–200Google Scholar
  39. Herman J, Hovestadt-Euler M, Hovestadt DC, Stehmann M (2000) Contributions to the study of the comparative morphology of teeth and other relevant ichthyodorulites in living superaspecific taxa of chondrichthyan fishes. Part B: Batomorphii 4c: order: Rajiformes - suborder Myliobatoidei - superfamily Dasyatoidea - family Dasyatidae - subfamily Dasyatinae - genus: Urobatis, subfamily Potamotrygoninae - genus: Pomatotrgon, superfamily Plesiobatoidea - family Plesiobatidae - genus: Plestiobatis, superfamily Myliobatoidea - family Myliobatidae subfamily Myliobatinae - genera: Aetobatus, Aetomylaeus, Myliobatis and Pteromylaeus, subfamily Rhinopterinae - genus: Rhinoptera and subfamily Mobulinae - genera: Manta and Mobula. Addendum 1 to 4a: erratum to genus Pteroplatytrygon. Bull Inst R Sci N Belg, Biologie 70:5–67Google Scholar
  40. Hoorn C, Wesselingh FP (eds) (2010) Amazonia, landscape and species evolution: a look into the past. Blackwell-Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoorn C, Wesselingh FP, Steege H, Bermudez MA, Mora A, Sevink J, Sanmartín I, Sanchez-Meseguer A, Anderson CL, Figueiredo JP, Jaramillo C, Riff D, Negri FR, Hooghiemstra H, Lundberg J, Stadler T, Särkinen T, Antonelli A (2010) Amazonia through time: Andean uplift, climate change, landscape evolution, and biodiversity. Science 330:927–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hovikoski J, Wesselingh FP, Räsänen M, Gingras M, Vonhof HB (2010) Marine influence in Amazonia: evidence from the geological record. In: Hoorn C, Wesselingh FP (eds) Amazonia, landscape and species evolution: a look into the past. Blackwell-Wiley, Hoboken, pp 143–160Google Scholar
  43. Huxley TH (1880) A manual of the anatomy of vertebrate animals. Appleton D and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnson MR, Snelson FF Jr (1996) Reproductive life history of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis Sabina (Pisces, Dasyatidae) in the freshwater St. Johns River, Florida. Bull Mar Sci 59:74–88Google Scholar
  45. Kummel B (1948) Geological reconnaissance of Contamana region, Peru. Geol Soc Am Bull 59:1217–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Larrazet M (1886) Des pièces de la peau de quelques Sélaciens fossiles. B Soc Geol Fr 3:255–277Google Scholar
  47. Lasso CA, Rial AB, Lasso-Alcalá O (1996) Notes on the biology of the freshwater stingrays Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) and Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) in the Venezuelan Llanos. Aquat J Ichthyol Aquat Biol 2:39–52Google Scholar
  48. Lovejoy NR (1996) Systematics of myliobatoid elasmobranchs: with emphasis on the phylogeny and historical biogeography of neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae: Rajiformes). Zool J Lin Soc-Lond 117:207–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lovejoy NR, Birminghan E, Martin AP (1998) South American rays came in with the sea. Nature 396:420–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lovejoy NR, Albert JS, Crampton WGR (2006) Miocene marine incursion and marine/freshwater transition: evidence from Neotropical fishes. J S Am Earth Sci 21:5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lundberg JG (1997) Fishes of the La Venta fauna: additional taxa; biotic, and paleoenvironmental implications. In: Kay RF et al (eds) The Miocene fauna of La Venta Colombia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., pp 67–91Google Scholar
  52. Lundberg JG, Marshall LG, Guerrero J, Horton B, Malabarba MCSL, Wesselingh FP (1998) The stage of Neotropical fish diversification: a history of tropical South American rivers. In: Malabarba LR et al (eds) Phylogeny and classification of neotropical fishes. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, pp 13–48Google Scholar
  53. Lundberg JG, Sabaj Pérez MH, Dahdul WM, Aguilera O (2010) The Amazonian Neogene fish fauna. In: Hoorn CM, Wesselingh FP (eds) Amazonia, landscape and species evolution: a look into the past. Blackwell Publishing, London, pp 281–301Google Scholar
  54. Marques FPL (2000) Evolution of neotropical freshwater stingrays and their parasites: taking into account space and time. Unpublished Ph.D., dissertation, University of Toronto, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  55. Marsh OS (1877) Notice of some new vertebrate fossils. Am J Sci Arts 14:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Martin RA, McKinlay D (2004) Biology and conservation of freshwater elasmobranchs. Symposium Proceedings of international Congress on the Biology of Fish, Manaus Brazil, August 1–5, 2004:1–64Google Scholar
  57. McEachran JD, Dunn KA, Miyake T (1996) Interrelationships within the batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea). In: Stiassny MLJ, Parenti LR, Johnson GD (eds) Interrelationships of fishes. Academic, New York, pp 63–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Melo SMV, Lima DVM, Vieria LJS (2007) Aspectos da alimentação da família Potamotrygonidae (chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) na bacia do rio Juruá, Acre, Brasil. In: Proceedings of 17 Encontro Brasileiro de Ictiologia - EBI. Itajaí: UNIVALI, pp 153Google Scholar
  59. Monkolprasit S, Roberts TR (1990) Himantura chaophraya, a new giant freshwater stingray from Thailand. Jpn J Ichthyol 37:203–208Google Scholar
  60. Monsch KA (1998) Miocene fish faunas from the northwestern Amazonia basin (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) with evidence of marine incursions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 143:31–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Müller J, Henle FGJ (1841) Systematische beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Verlag von Veit, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Naylor GJP, Caira JN, Jensen K, Rosana KAM, White WT, Last PR (2012) A DNA sequence based approach to the identification of shark and ray species and its implications for global elasmobranch diversity and parasitology. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 367:1–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nishida K (1990) Phylogeny of the suborder Myliobatidoidei. Mem Fac Fish Hokkaido Univ 37:1–108Google Scholar
  64. Oldfield RG (2005a) Biology, husbandry, and reproduction of freshwater stingrays. Trop Fish Hobbyist 53:114–116Google Scholar
  65. Oldfield RG (2005b) Biology, husbandry, and reproduction of freshwater stingrays. Trop Fish Hobbyist 54:110–112Google Scholar
  66. Ribeiro de Santana F, Cicimurri DJ, Barbosa JA (2011) New material of Apocopodon sericeus Cope 1886 (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae) from the Paraíba basin (northeastern Brazil), and South Carolina (USA) with a reanalysis of the species. PalArch’s J Vertebr Paleontol 8:1–20Google Scholar
  67. Rincon G (2006) Aspectos taxonômicos, alimentação e reprodução da Raia de Água Doce Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau) (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae) no Rio Paranã, Tocantins. Unpubl. PhD thesis, dissertation, Rio Claro, Universidade Estadual PaulistaGoogle Scholar
  68. Roberts TR (2007) Makararaja chindwinensis, a new genus and species of freshwater dasyatidid stingray from Upper Myanmar. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 54:285–293Google Scholar
  69. Roberts T, Karnasuta J (1987) Dasyatis laoensis, a new whiptailed stingray (family Dasyatidae), from the Mekong River of Laos and Thailand. Environ Biol Fish 20:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Roddaz M, Viers J, Brusset S, Baby P, Hérail G (2005) Sediment provenances and drainage evolution of the Neogene Amazonian foreland basin. Earth Planet Sci Lett 239:57–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Roddaz M, Hermoza W, Mora A, Baby P, Parra M, Christophoul F, Brusset S, Espurt N (2010) Cenozoic sedimentary evolution of the Amazonian foreland basin system. In: Hoorn C, Wesselingh FP (eds) Amazonia, landscape and species evolution: a look into the past. Blackwell-Wiley, Hoboken, pp 61–88Google Scholar
  72. Rodriguez G (1982) Les crabes d’eau douce d’Amérique. Famille des Pseudothelphusidae. Faune Tropicale 22 ORSTOM Editions, ParisGoogle Scholar
  73. Rosa RS (1985) A systematic revision of the South American freshwater stingrays (Chondricthyes: Potamotrygonidae). Unpublished PhD thesis, dissertation, College of William and Mary, WilliamsburgGoogle Scholar
  74. Rosa RS, Castello HP, Thorson TB (1987) Plesiotrygon iwamae, a new genus and species of Neotropical freshwater stingray (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae). Copeia 1987:447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosa RS, de Carvalho MR, Wanderley CA (2008) Potamotrygon boesemani (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae), a new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray from Surinam. Neotrop Ichthyol 6:1–8Google Scholar
  76. Rosa RS, Charvet-Almeida P, Quijada CCD (2010) Biology of the South American potamotrygonid stingrays. In: Carrier JC, Musick JA, Heithaus MR (eds) Sharks and their relatives II: biodiversity, adaptive physiology, and conservation. CRC Press, Florida, pp 241–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ross RA, Schäfer F (2000) Aqualog Süsswasser Rochen: freshwater rays. Verlag ACS, Mörfelden-WalldorfGoogle Scholar
  78. Schaeffer B (1963) Cretaceous fishes from Bolivia, with comments on Pristid evolution. Am Mus Novit 2159:1–20Google Scholar
  79. Shibuya A, Zuanon JAS, Araújo MLG (2007) Composição da dieta de quatro raias da família Potamotrygonidae da bacia do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. In: Proceedings of 17 Encontro Brasileiro de Ictiologia - EBI. Itajaí: UNIVALI, 2007, pp 201Google Scholar
  80. Silva AJA, Charvet-Almeida P, Viana AS, Almeida MP, Rosa RS (2006) Biologia alimentar de Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) na região do médio rio Xingu, Pará. In: Proceedings of 5 Reunião da Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo de Elasmobrânquios - SBEEL. Itajaí: Nova Letra, 2006 , pp 19Google Scholar
  81. Smith JA (1863) Notice of the Ukpam, a large species (probably new) of sting ray (Trygon, Cuv.), found in the Old Calabar River, Africa. Proc R Phys Soc Edinburgh 2(1859):64–69Google Scholar
  82. Stauch A, Blanc M (1962) Description d’un sélacien rajiforme des eaux douces du Nord-Cameroun: Potamotrygon garouaensis n.sp. Bull Mus Hist Nat Paris 34:166–171Google Scholar
  83. Toffoli D, Hrbek T, Góes de Araújo ML, Pinto de Almeida M, Charvet-Almeida P, Farias IP (2008) A test of the utility of DNA barcoding in the radiation of the freshwater stingray genus Potamotrygon (Potamotrygonidae, Myliobatiformes). Genet Mol Biol 31(1):324–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Whitley GP (1940) The fishes of Australia. Part I. The sharks, rays, devil-fish, and other primitive fishes of Australia and New Zealand. Australian Zoological Handbook, Mozman, Royal Zoological Society of New South WalesGoogle Scholar
  85. Williamson TE, Kirkland JI, Lucas SG (1993) Selachians from the greenhorn cyclotherm (‘Middle’ Cretaceous: Cenomanian-Turonian), Black Mesa, Arizona, and the paleogeographic distribution of late Cretaceous Selachians. J Paleontol 67:447–474Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sylvain Adnet
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rodolfo Salas Gismondi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pierre-Olivier Antoine
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution, UMR-CNRS 5554 CC064Université Montpellier 2MontpellierFrance
  2. 2.Departamento de Paleontología de VertebradosMuseo de Historia Natural-Universidad Nacional Mayor San MarcosLima 11Peru

Personalised recommendations