, Volume 100, Issue 12, pp 1125–1136 | Cite as

Tolerating an infection: an indirect benefit of co-founding queen associations in the ant Lasius niger

  • Christopher D. Pull
  • William O. H. Hughes
  • Mark J. F. Brown
Original Paper


Pathogens exert a strong selection pressure on organisms to evolve effective immune defences. In addition to individual immunity, social organisms can act cooperatively to produce collective defences. In many ant species, queens have the option to found a colony alone or in groups with other, often unrelated, conspecifics. These associations are transient, usually lasting only as long as each queen benefits from the presence of others. In fact, once the first workers emerge, queens fight to the death for dominance. One potential advantage of co-founding may be that queens benefit from collective disease defences, such as mutual grooming, that act against common soil pathogens. We test this hypothesis by exposing single and co-founding queens to a fungal parasite, in order to assess whether queens in co-founding associations have improved survival. Surprisingly, co-foundresses exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium did not engage in cooperative disease defences, and consequently, we find no direct benefit of multiple queens on survival. However, an indirect benefit was observed, with parasite-exposed queens producing more brood when they co-founded, than when they were alone. We suggest this is due to a trade-off between reproduction and immunity. Additionally, we report an extraordinary ability of the queens to tolerate an infection for long periods after parasite exposure. Our study suggests that there are no social immunity benefits for co-founding ant queens, but that in parasite-rich environments, the presence of additional queens may nevertheless improve the chances of colony founding success.


Lasius niger Life-history trade-offs Metarhizium Allogrooming Social immunity Pleometrosis 



We thank Catherine Jones and Matthias Fürst for assistance in maintaining ant colonies and help with collecting data, Miriam Stock for helpful comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript, Bill Wcislo and four anonymous reviewers for comments which greatly improved the manuscript, Meghan L. Vyleta for fungal characterisation and Line V. Ugelvig for advice on statistical analysis.

Supplementary material

114_2013_1115_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (218 kb)
Online Resource 1 (PDF 217 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher D. Pull
    • 1
    • 2
  • William O. H. Hughes
    • 3
  • Mark J. F. Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Royal Holloway University of LondonEghamUK
  2. 2.IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria)KlosterneuburgAustria
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK

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