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Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 100, Issue 10, pp 901–911 | Cite as

Behavioral and life-history evidence for interspecific competition in the larvae of two heliconian butterflies

  • Carolina Millan
  • Simone Silva Borges
  • Daniela RodriguesEmail author
  • Gilson Rudinei Pires Moreira
Original Paper

Abstract

Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone (D. iulia) or together (D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.

Keywords

Competition exclusion Coexistence Niche differentiation Heliconiini Passifloraceae 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to José R. Trigo for help with statistical analysis and comments on early drafts of the manuscript. We also thank Ian Kaplan and three anonymous reviewers for comments that have improved the manuscript. CM and SSB received grants from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS), respectively. Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq) supported DR (grant no. 480264/2010-4) and GRPM (grant no. 309676/2011-8).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolina Millan
    • 1
  • Simone Silva Borges
    • 2
  • Daniela Rodrigues
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gilson Rudinei Pires Moreira
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.PPG Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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