, Volume 99, Issue 9, pp 705–713 | Cite as

Reward and non-reward learning of flower colours in the butterfly Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

  • Ikuo Kandori
  • Takafumi Yamaki
Original Paper


Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects. To increase their foraging efficiency, flower-visiting insects may learn to associate floral cues with the presence (so-called reward learning) or the absence (so-called non-reward learning) of a reward. Reward learning whilst foraging for flowers has been demonstrated in many insect taxa, whilst non-reward learning in flower-visiting insects has been demonstrated only in honeybees, bumblebees and hawkmoths. This study examined both reward and non-reward learning abilities in the butterfly Byasa alcinous whilst foraging among artificial flowers of different colours. This butterfly showed both types of learning, although butterflies of both sexes learned faster via reward learning. In addition, females learned via reward learning faster than males. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first empirical data on the learning speed of both reward and non-reward learning in insects. We discuss the adaptive significance of a lower learning speed for non-reward learning when foraging on flowers.


Positive associative learning Appetitive learning Negative associative learning Aversive learning Aversion learning Habituation 



We sincerely thank Drs. T. Sugimoto, Y. Sakuratani, E. Yano and D. R. Papaj for their valuable advice. We also thank H. Nakai, H. Narita and Y. Kinoshita for assistance with the preliminary experiments. All experiments complied with the current laws of Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of AgricultureKinki UniversityNaraJapan

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