, Volume 99, Issue 8, pp 671–672 | Cite as

Deep-diving dinosaurs

  • John Hayman
Comments & Replies


Dysbaric bone necrosis demonstrated in ichthyosaurs may be the result of prolonged deep diving rather than rapid ascent to escape predators. The bone lesions show structural and anatomical similarity to those that may occur in human divers and in the deep diving sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus.


Ichthyosaurus Deep diving Dysbaric bone necrosis Decompression illness 


  1. Battino R, Clever HL (1966) The solubility of gases in liquids. Chem Rev 66:395–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davidson J (1972) Radiology of dysbaric osteonecrosis. J Clin Pathol 25:1005–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hasan SS, Romeo AA (2002) Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the humeral head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 11:281–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hutter CD (2000) Dysbaric osteonecrosis: a reassessment and hypothesis. Med Hypotheses 54:585–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Rothschild BM, Xiaoting Z, Martin LD (2012) Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs. Naturwissenschaften 99:443–448. doi: 10.1007/s00114-012-0918-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Vann RD, Butler FK, Mitchell SJ, Moon RE (2011) Decompression illness. Lancet 377:153–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyThe University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations