, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 39–49

The first ceratopsian dinosaur from South Korea

  • Yuong-Nam Lee
  • Michael J. Ryan
  • Yoshitsugu Kobayashi
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00114-010-0739-y

Cite this article as:
Lee, YN., Ryan, M.J. & Kobayashi, Y. Naturwissenschaften (2011) 98: 39. doi:10.1007/s00114-010-0739-y


In 2008, a new basal neoceratopsian was discovered in the Tando beds (Albian) of Tando Basin in South Korea. It represents the first ceratopsian dinosaur in the Korean peninsula and is assigned to Koreaceratops hwaseongensis gen. et sp. nov. Autapomorphies of Koreaceratops include very tall neural spines over five times higher than the associated centra in the distal caudals, and a unique astragalus divided into two fossae by a prominent craniocaudal ridge on the proximal surface. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that Koreaceratops is positioned between Archaeoceratops and all more derived neoceratopsians, and the elongation of caudal neural spines was an important derived character in non-ceratopsid neoceratopsians. The very tall caudal neural spines in Koreaceratops, Montanoceratops, Udanoceratops, Protoceratops, and Bagaceratops appear to be homoplasious, suggesting an independent adaptation, possibly for swimming. Skeletal evidence suggests that obligate quadrupedalism occurred gradually in neoceratopsians progressing from bipedal through facultative quadrupedalism, to complete quadrupedalism in Coronosauria.


Basal neoceratopsian Koreaceratops hwaseongensis Tando beds Late Early Cretaceous Hwaseong City South Korea 

Supplementary material

114_2010_739_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (69 kb)
Online Resource 1Measurements of Koreaceratops hwaseongensis, gen. et sp. nov. (in millimeters). Asterisk indicates as preserved (PDF 68 kb)
114_2010_739_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (19 kb)
Online Resource 2Character-taxon matrix (21 taxa, 136 characters). Data matrix is compiled by adding three new characters (char. 134–136) to a NEXUS version of the matrix of Makovicky and Norell (2006) and Makovicky (2010) (PDF 18 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuong-Nam Lee
    • 1
  • Michael J. Ryan
    • 2
  • Yoshitsugu Kobayashi
    • 3
  1. 1.Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral ResourcesDaejeonSouth Korea
  2. 2.Cleveland Museum of Natural HistoryClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Hokkaido University MuseumHokkaidoJapan

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