First direct evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species (Cheirogaleus crossleyi) from the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar
- 268 Downloads
The nocturnal dwarf lemurs of Madagascar (genus Cheirogaleus) are the only primates known to be obligate hibernators. Although the physiology of hibernation has been studied widely in the western, small-bodied species, Cheirogaleus medius, no direct evidence of hibernation, i.e., body temperature recordings, has been reported for any of the three recognized eastern dwarf lemur species. We present skin temperature data collected by external collar transmitters from two eastern dwarf lemur individuals (Cheirogaleus crossleyi) captured in the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar. Our study species is larger in body size than western dwarf lemurs and inhabits much colder environments. We present the first evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species, and we compare the results with data available for the western species. Although the hibernation period is shorter in dwarf lemurs from Tsinjoarivo, minimum body temperatures are lower than those reported for C. medius. Both individuals at Tsinjoarivo showed limited passive and extended deep hibernation during which they did not track ambient temperature as observed in most western dwarf lemurs. Because ambient temperatures at Tsinjoarivo never exceed 30°C, dwarf lemurs have to experience arousals to maintain homeostasis during periods of hibernation. We show that large dwarf lemurs (>400 g) are capable of undergoing deep hibernation and suggest that cold, high-altitude forests may render hibernation highly advantageous during periods of food scarcity. This study has implications for understanding the physiology of hibernation in small-bodied lemurs.
KeywordsHibernation Cheirogaleus Dwarf lemurs Tsinjoarivo Madagascar
We are particularly thankful to Noel Rakotoniaina for assisting in all aspects of this research. Additional thanks to Jean-Luc Raharison and Mitchell Irwin for providing ambient temperature data and to Edmond and Nirina Razanadrakoto for assistance in the field. We are indebted to Laurie R. Godfrey for her help in editing this paper. This research was supported by funds from the Rufford Foundation, MMBF/Conservation International Primate Action Fund, and Primate Conservation Inc. to MBB. Research in Madagascar was facilitated by the Institute for the Conservation of Tropical Environments (ICTE, Patricia C. Wright) and the Madagascar Institute pour la Conservation des Ecosystèmes Tropicaux (MICET), especially Benjamin Andriamihaja. This research was conducted under permission of institutional and governmental agencies that regulate animal research in Madagascar.
- Blanco MB, Godfrey LR, Rakotondratsima M, Rahalinarivo V, Samonds KE, Raharison J-L, Irwin MT (2009) Discovery of sympatric dwarf lemur species in the high altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar: implications for biogeography and conservation. Folia Primatol 80:1–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hladik CM, Charles-Dominique P, Petter JJ (1980) Feeding strategies of five nocturnal prosimians in the dry forest of the west coast of Madagascar. In: Charles-Dominique P, Cooper HM, Hladik A, Hladik CM, Pages E, Pariente GS, Petter-Rousseaux A, Petter JJ, Schilling A (eds) Nocturnal Malagasy primates: ecology, physiology and behavior. Academic, New York, pp 41–73Google Scholar
- Irwin MT (2006) Ecological impacts of forest fragmentation on diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar: implications for conservation in fragmented landscapes. Dissertation, Stony Brook UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Petter-Rousseaux A (1980) Seasonal activity rhythms, reproduction, and body weight variations in five sympatric nocturnal prosimians, in simulated light and climatic conditions. In: Charles-Dominique P, Cooper HM, Hladik A, Hladik CM, Pages E, Pariente GS, Petter-Rousseaux A, Petter JJ, Schilling A (eds) Nocturnal Malagasy primates: ecology, physiology and behavior. Academic, New York, pp 137–152Google Scholar
- Wright PC, Martin LB (1995) Predation, pollination and torpor in two nocturnal primates: Cheirogaleus major and Microcebus rufus in the rainforest of Madagascar. In: Alterman L, Doyle G, Izard MK (eds) Creatures of the dark. Plenum, New York, pp 45–60Google Scholar