, Volume 97, Issue 4, pp 345–352 | Cite as

Constraints on energetic particles in the Fleischmann–Pons experiment

  • Peter L. HagelsteinEmail author


In recent Fleischmann–Pons experiments carried out by different groups, a thermal signal is seen indicative of excess energy production of a magnitude much greater than can be accounted for by chemistry. Correlated with the excess heat appears to be 4He, with the associated energy near 24 MeV per helium atom. In nuclear reactions, the energy produced is expressed through the kinetic energy of the products; hence, it would be natural to assume that some of the reaction energy ends up as kinetic energy of the 4He nucleus. Depending on the energy that the helium nucleus is born with, it will result in radiation (such as neutrons or x-rays) that can be seen outside of the cell. We have computed estimates of the expected neutron and x-ray emission as a function of helium energy and compared the results with upper limits taken from experiments. Experimental results with upper limits of neutron emission between 0.008 and 0.8 n/J are found to correspond to upper limits in alpha energy between 6.2 and 20.2 keV.


Fleischmann–Pons effect 


  1. Aoki T, Kurata Y, Ebihara H, Yoshikawa N (1994) Helium and tritium concentrations in electrolytic cells. Trans Fusion Technol 26:214–220Google Scholar
  2. Aoki T, Kurata Y, Ebihara H, Yoshikawa N (1998) Search for nuclear products of D + D nuclear fusion. Int J Soc Mat Eng Resour 6:22–25Google Scholar
  3. Appleby AJ, Kim YJ, Murphy OJ, Srinivasan S (1990) Anomalous calorimetric results during long-term evolution of deuterium on palladium from alkaline deuteroxide electrolyte. Proceedings of the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, pp 32–43Google Scholar
  4. Cusson RY (1965) A study of the elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles by lithium-7. PhD thesis. CalTech, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  5. Fleischmann M, Pons S, Hawkins M (1989) Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. J Electroanal Chem 261:301–308, errata (1990) 263:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fleischmann M, Pons S, Anderson MW, Li LJ, Hawkins M (1990) Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water system. J Electroanal Chem 287:293–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Garcia JD (1971) X-ray production by alpha-particle impact. Phys Rev 4:955–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gozzi D, Caputo R, Cignini PL, Tomellini M, Gigli G, Balducci G, Cisbani E, Frullani S, Garibaldi F, Jodice M, Urciuoli GM (1994) Excess heat and nuclear product measurements in cold fusion electrochemical cells. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion 1:(2-1)–(2-31)Google Scholar
  9. Hagelstein PL, McKubre MCH, Nagel DJ, Chubb TA, Hekman RJ (2005) New physical effects in metal deuterides. Proceedings 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion, pp 23–59Google Scholar
  10. Henkel RL, Perry JE, Smith KR (1955) Breakup of deuterons on H, T, and 4He. Phys Rev 99:1050–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iwamura Y, Gotoh N, Itoh T, Toyoda I (1995) Characteristic x-ray and neutron emissions from electrochemically deuterated palladium. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion 9-13 April 1995, pp 197–200Google Scholar
  12. Kambara T, Takai M, Nakamura M, Kobayashi S (1978) Deuteron breakup reaction on 4He. J Phys Soc Japan 44:704–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klein AC, Zahm LL, Binney SE, Reyes JN, Higgeinbotham JF, Robinson AH, Daniels M, Peterson RB (1990) Anomalous heat output from Pd cathodes without detectable nuclear products. American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings 228:247–261Google Scholar
  14. Li CW, Sherr R (1954) Inelastic scattering of alpha particles by lithium. Phys Rev 96:389–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lipson AG, Lyakhov BF, Roussetski AS, Akimoto T, Mizuno T, Asami N, Shimada R, Miyashita S, Takahashi A (2000) Evidence for low-intensity D-D reactions as a result of exothermic deuterium desorption from Au/Pd/PdO:D heterostructure. Fusion Technol 38:238–252Google Scholar
  16. McKubre MCH, Crouch-Baker S, Rocha-Filho RC, Smedley SI, Tanzella FL, Passell TO, Santucci J (1994) Isothermal flow calorimetric investigations of the D/Pd and H/Pd systems. J Electroanal Chem 368:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miles MH (2004) Correlation of excess enthalpy and helium-4 production: a review. Proceedings of ICCF 10:123–131Google Scholar
  18. Miles MH, Hollins RA, Bush BF, Lagowski JJ, Miles RE (1993) Correlation of excess power and helium production during D2O and H2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. J Electroanal Chem 346:99–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Miles MH, Bush BF, Lagowski JJ (1994) Anomalous effects involving excess power, radiation, and helium production during D2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol 25:478–486Google Scholar
  20. Mosier-Boss PA, Szpak S, Gordon FE, Forsley LPG (2007) Use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. EPJ Appl Phys 40:293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nolette KM, Wiringa RB, Schiavilla R (2001) Six-body calculation of the α-deuteron radiative capture cross section. Phys Rev C 63:024003-1–024003-12Google Scholar
  22. Okamoto M, Yoshinaga Y, Aida M, Kusunoki T (1994) Excess heat generation, voltage deviation, and neutron emission in D2O-LiOD systems. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion 2:(3-1)–(3-6)Google Scholar
  23. Raiola F, Gang L, Bonomo C, Gyürky G, Aliotta M, Becker HW, Bonetti R, Broggini C, Corvisiero P, D'Onofrio A, Fülöp Z, Gervino G, Gialanella L, Junker M, Prati P, Roca V, Rolfs C, Romano M, Somorjai E, Streider F, Terrasi F, Fiorentini G, Langanke K, Winter J (2004) Enhanced electron screening in d(d, p)t for deuterated metals. Eur Phys J A 19:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Scott CD, Mrochek JE, Scott TC, Michaels GE, Newman E, Petek M (1990) Measurement of excess heat and apparent coincident increases in the neutron and gamma-ray count rates during the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol 18:103–114Google Scholar
  25. Shanley PE (1969) Three-body model of 6Li and deuteron-alpha-particle scattering. Phys Rev 187:1328–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Storms E (2007) Science of low energy nuclear reaction: a comprehensive compilation of evidence and explanations about cold fusion. World Scientific Publishing Co, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Takahashi A, Mega A, Takeuchi T (1993) Anomalous excess heat by D2O/Pd cell under L-H mode electrolysis. Frontiers of cold fusion. Front Sci Ser 4:79–91Google Scholar
  28. Takahashi A, Inokuchi T, Chimi Y, Ikegawa T, Kaji N, Nitta Y, Kobayashi K, Taniguchi M (1995) Experimental correlation between excess heat and nuclear products. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion 9–13 April 1995, pp 69–78Google Scholar
  29. Uchida H, Sato M, Cui W, Tabata T, Kumagai M, Takano H, Kondo T (1999) Effect of the penetration of Li atoms into the Pd surface on thermodynamic properties of the Pd-H system. J Alloys and Compounds 293–295:30–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wilson SR, McDaniel FD, Rowe JR, Duggan JL (1977) K-shell x-rays of selected elements from Nb through Gd for incident protons and alpha particles from 0.6 to 2.4 MeV. Phys Rev 16:903–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wolf KL, Packham NJC, Lawson D, Shoemaker J, Cheng F, Wass JC (1990) Neutron emission and the tritium content associated with deuterium-loaded palladium and titanium metals. J Fusion Energy 9:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yamazaki O, Yoshitake H, Kamiya N, Kenichiro O (1995) Hydrogen absorption and Li inclusion in a Pd cathode in LiOH solution. J Electroanal Chem 390:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yasuda K, Nitta Y, Takahashi A (1996) Study of excess heat and nuclear products with closed D2O electrolysis system. Progress New Hydrogen Energy 1:36–43Google Scholar
  34. Ziegler JF, Biersack JP, Ziegler MD (2008) SRIM—the stopping power and range of ions in matter. Lulu Press, MorrisvilleGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Laboratory of Electronics, MITCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations