Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 96, Issue 11, pp 1313–1337 | Cite as

The predictability of evolution: glimpses into a post-Darwinian world

REVIEW

Abstract

The very success of the Darwinian explanation, in not only demonstrating evolution from multiple lines of evidence but also in providing some plausible explanations, paradoxically seems to have served to have stifled explorations into other areas of investigation. The fact of evolution is now almost universally yoked to the assumption that its outcomes are random, trends are little more than drunkard’s walks, and most evolutionary products are masterpieces of improvisation and far from perfect. But is this correct? Let us consider some alternatives. Is there evidence that evolution could in anyway be predictable? Can we identify alternative forms of biological organizations and if so how viable are they? Why are some molecules so extraordinarily versatile, while others can be spoken of as “molecules of choice”? How fortuitous are the major transitions in the history of life? What implications might this have for the Tree of Life? To what extent is evolutionary diversification constrained or facilitated by prior states? Are evolutionary outcomes merely sufficient or alternatively are they highly efficient, even superb? Here I argue that in sharp contradistinction to an orthodox Darwinian view, not only is evolution much more predictable than generally assumed but also investigation of its organizational substrates, including those of sensory systems, which indicates that it is possible to identify a predictability to the process and outcomes of evolution. If correct, the implications may be of some significance, not least in separating the unexceptional Darwinian mechanisms from underlying organizational principles, which may indicate evolutionary inevitabilities.

Keywords

Convergence Sensory Evolution 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I give my warm thanks to Vivien Brown for efficient typing of numerous drafts and to the editors for inviting me to write this review. I also thank both colleagues and publishers for permission to reproduce figured material, and Sharon Capon for re-drafting Figs. 2, 3, and 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. I apologize to the many workers whose contributions could not be cited because of lack of space. Finally, I thank Ken McNamara and four anonymous referees for critical and constructive reviews.

References

  1. Adams DB (1979) The cheetah: Native American. Science 205:1155–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlberg PE, Johanson Z (1998) Osteolepiforms and the ancestry of tetrapods. Nature 395:792–794Google Scholar
  3. Alhberg P, Lukševičs E, Mark-Kurik E (2000) A near-tetrapod from the Baltic Middle Devonian. Palaeont 43:533–548Google Scholar
  4. Aldaz S, Morata G, Azpiazu N (2003) The Pax-homeobox gene eyegone is involved in the subdivision of the thorax of Drosophila. Dev 130:4473–4482Google Scholar
  5. Alder MN, Rogozin IB, Iyer LM, Glazko GV, Cooper MD, Pancer Z (2005) Diversity and function of adaptive immune receptors in a jawless vertebrate. Science 310:1970–1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Allada R, Siegel JM (2008) Unearthing the phylogenetic roots of sleep. Curr Biol 18:R670–R679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andrews GL, Mastick GS (2003) R-cadherin is a Pax6-regulated, growth promoting cue for pioneer axons. J Neurosci 23:9873–9880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anger K (1995) The conquest of freshwater and land by marine crabs: adaptations in life-history patterns and larval bioenergetics. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 193:119–145Google Scholar
  9. Anton M, Salesa MJ, Morales J, Turner A (2004) First known complete skulls of the scimitar-toothed cat Machairodus aphanistus (Felidae, Carnivora) from the Spanish late Miocene site of Batallones-1. J Vert Paleont 24:957–969Google Scholar
  10. Arrese CA, Beazley LD, Ferguson MC, Oddy A, Hunt DM (2006) Spectral tuning of the long wavelength-sensitive cone pigment in four Australian marsupials. Gene 381:13–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Aruga J, Odaka YS, Kumiya A, Furuya H (2007) Dicyema Pax6 and Zic: tool-kit genes in a highly simplified bilaterian. BMC Evol Biol 7:201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ausubel FM (2005) Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved? Nature Immunol 6:973–979Google Scholar
  13. Bailly X, Vanin S, Chabasse C, Mizuguchi K, Vinogradov SN (2008) A phylogenomic profile of hemerythrins, the nonheme diiron binding respiratory proteins. BMC Evol Biol 8:art 244Google Scholar
  14. Barnett R, Barnes I, Phillips MJ, Martin LD, Harington CR, Leonard JA, Cooper A (2005) Evolution of the extinct sabretooths and the American cheetah-like cat. Curr Biol 15:R589–R590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bates HW (1892) The naturalist on the River Amazons. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Bates ME, Stamper SA, Simmons JA (2008) Jamming avoidance response by big brown bats in target detection. J Exp Biol 211:106–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bayliss J (2002) The East Usambara tree-hole crab (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)—a striking example of crustacean adaptation in closed forest, Tanzania. Afr J Ecol 40:26–34Google Scholar
  18. Baylor DA, Lamb TD, Yau K-W (1979) Responses of retinal rods to single photons. J Physiol 288:613–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bebenek IG, Gates DG, Morris J, Hartenstein V, Jacobs DK (2004) Sine oculis in basal Metazoa. Dev Genes Evol 214:342–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Belbahri L, Calmin G, Mauch F, Andersson JO (2008) Evolution of the cutinase gene family: evidence for lateral gene transfer of a candidate Phytophthora virulence factor. Gene 408:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Benton R (2006) On the origin of smell: odorant receptors in insects. Cell Mol Life Sci 63:1579–1585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bernal D, Sepulveda C, Mathieu-Costello O, Graham JB (2003) Comparative studies of high performance swimming in sharks. I. Red muscle morphometrics, vascularization and ultrastructure. J Exp Biol 206:2831–2843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Besnard G, Muasya AM, Russier F, Roalson EH, Salamin N, Christin P-A (2009) Phylogenomics of C4 photosynthesis in sedges (Cyperaceae): multiple appearances and genetic convergence. Mol Biol Evol 26:1909–1919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bird CD, Emery NJ (2009) Insightful problem solving and creative tool modification by captive nontool-using rooks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:10370–10375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Blalock JE (1994) The syntax of immune-neuroendocrine communication. Immunol Today 15:504–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Blalock JE (2005) The immune system as the sixth sense. J Internal Med 257:126–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Boisvert CA (2009) The humerus of Panderichthys in three dimensions and its significance in the context of the fish-tetrapod transition. Acta Zool 90(Suppl. 1):297–305Google Scholar
  28. Boisvert CA, Mark-Kurik E, Ahlberg PE (2008) The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits. Nature 456:636–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bossuyt F, Milinkovich MC (2000) Convergent adaptive radiations in Madagascan and Asian ranid frogs reveal covariation between larval and adult traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:6585–6590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Boulanger LM, Huh GS, Shatz CJ (2001) Neuronal plasticity and cellular immunity: shared molecular mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:568–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brazeau MD (2005) A new genus of rhizodontid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Lower Carboniferous Horton Bluff Formation of Nova Scotia, and the evolution of the lower jaw in this group. Can J Earth Sci 42:1481–1499Google Scholar
  32. Brown LS (2004) Fungal rhodopsins and opsin-related proteins: eukaryotic homologues of bacteriorhodopsin with unknown functions. Photochem Photobiol Sci 3:555–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown JK, Kodric-Brown A (1979) Convergence, competition and mimicry in a temperate community of hummingbird-pollinated flowers. Ecology 60:1022–1035Google Scholar
  34. Burmester T (2004) Evolutionary history and diversity of arthropod hemocyanins. Micron 35:121–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Burroughs AM, Balaji S, Iyer LM, Aravind L (2007) Small but versatile: the extraordinary functional and structural diversity of the β-grasp fold. Biol Direct 2:18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Byrne RA, Kuba M, Griebel U (2002) Lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris. Anim Behav 64:461–468Google Scholar
  37. Carroll RL (2000) Towards a new evolutionary synthesis. Trends Ecol Evol 15:27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Catania KC (1999) A nose that looks like a hand and acts like an eye: the unusual mechanosensory system of the star-nosed mole. J Comp Physiol A 185:367–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Catania KC, Remple FE (2004) Tactile foveation in the star-nosed mole. Brain Behav Evol 63:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Catania KC, Remple FE (2005) Asymptotic prey profitability drives star-nosed moles to the foraging speed limit. Nature 433:519–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chatterjee S, Templin RJ (2007) Biplane wing platform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:1576–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chiari Y, Vences M, Vieites R, Rabemananjara F, Bora P, Ramilijaona Ravoahangimalala O, Meyer A (2004) New evidence for parallel evolution of colour patterns in Malagasy poison frogs (Mantella). Mol Ecol 13:3763–3774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chiu C, Xian W, Moss CF (2008) Flying in silence: echolocating bats cease vocalizing to avoid sonar jamming. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:13116–13121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Christiansen P (2006) Sabretooth characters in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa Griffiths 1821). J Morph 267:1186–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Christiansen P (2008) Species distinction and evolutionary differences in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and Diard’s Clouded Leopard (Neofelis diardi). J Mammal 89:1435–1446Google Scholar
  46. Christiansen P, Bonde N (2004) Body plumage in Archaeopteryx: a review and new evidence from the Berlin specimen. Comptes Rendu Paleovol 3:99–118Google Scholar
  47. Christiansen P, Ji Mazák H (2009) A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:512–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Clark VC, Raxworthy CJ, Rakotomalala V, Sierwald P, Fisher BL (2005) Convergent evolution of chemical defense in poison frogs and arthropod prey between Madagascar and the Neotropics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:11617–11622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cnotka J, Güntürkün O, Rehkämper G, Gray RD, Hunt GR (2008) Extraordinary large brains in tool-using New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides). Neurosci Lett 433:241–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Conant GC, Wagner A (2003) Convergent evolution of gene circuits. Nat Genet 34:264–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Conway Morris S (2003a) The Cambrian “explosion” of metazoans and molecular biology: would Darwin be satisfied? Int J Dev Biol 47:505–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Conway Morris S (2003b) Life’s solution: inevitable humans in a lonely universe. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. Conway Morris S (2006) Darwin’s dilemma: the realities of the Cambrian “explosion”. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B361:1069–1083Google Scholar
  54. Couillard P (1984) Photoreception in protozoa, an overview. In: Ali MA (ed) Photoreception and vision in invertebrates. Plenum, New York, pp 115–130Google Scholar
  55. Cverkl A, Yang Y, Chauhan BK, Cveklova H (2004) Regulation of gene expression by Pax6 in ocular cells: a case of tissue-preferred expression of crystallins in lens. Int J Dev Biol 48:829–844Google Scholar
  56. Daeschler EB, Clack JB, Shubin NH (2009) Late Devonian tetrapod remains from Red Hill, Pennsylvania, USA: how much diversity? Acta Zool 90(Suppl. 1):306–317Google Scholar
  57. Darwin C (1859) On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life, 1st edn. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  58. Deban SM, Olson WM (2003) Biomechanics: suction feeding by a tiny predatory tadpole. Nature 420:41–42Google Scholar
  59. de Cock Buning T (1984) A theoretical approach to the heat sensitive pit organs of snakes. J Theoret Biol 111:509–529Google Scholar
  60. de Cock Buning T (1985) Qualitative and quantitative explanation of the forms of heat sensitive organs in snakes. Acta Biotheoret 34:193–206Google Scholar
  61. de Muizon C (1999) Marsupial skulls from the Desendan (late Oligocene) of Bolivia and phylogenetic analysis of the Borhyaenoidea (Marsupialia, Mammalia). Geobios 32:483–509Google Scholar
  62. de Valais S, Melchor RN (2008) Ichnotaxonomy of bird-like footprints: an example from the late Triassic–early Jurassic of northwest Argentina. J Vert Paleont 28:145–159Google Scholar
  63. Denk W, Webb WW (1989) Thermal-noise-limited transduction observed in mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear. Phys Rev Lett 63:207–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Dickinson M (2008) Animal locomotion: a new spin on bat flight. Curr Biol 18:R468–R470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Diesel R (1992) Parental care in an unusual environment: Metopaulias depressus (Decapoda: Grapsidae), a crab that lives in epiphytic bromeliads. Anim Behav 38:561–575Google Scholar
  66. Diesel R (1997) Maternal control of calcium concentration in the larval nursery of the bromeliad crab, Metopaulias depressus (Grapsidae). Proc R Soc Lond B264:1403–1406Google Scholar
  67. Diesel R, Schubart CD, Schuh M (2000) A reconstruction of the invasion of land by Jamaican crabs (Grapsidae: Sesarminae). J Zool 250:141–160Google Scholar
  68. Donley JM, Sepulveda CA, Konstantinidis P, Gemballa S, Shadwick RE (2004) Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas. Nature 429:61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Eban-Rothschild AD, Bloch G (2008) Differences in the sleep architecture of forager and young honeybees (Apis mellifera). J Exp Biol 211:2408–2416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ebihara A, Okamoto A, Kousumi Y, Yamamoto H, Masui R, Ueyama N, Yokoyama S, Kuramitsu S (2005) Structure-based functional identification of a novel heme-binding protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8. J Struct Function Genomics 6:21–32Google Scholar
  71. Eick GN, Jacobs DS, Matthee CA (2005) A nuclear DNA phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of echolocation and historical biogeography of extant bats (Chiroptera). Mol Biol Evol 22:1869–1886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Emery NJ, Clayton NS (2004) The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science 306:1903–1907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Evans WG (2005) Infrared radiation sensors of Melanophila acuminata (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): a thermopneumatic model. Ann Entomol Soc Amer 98:738–746Google Scholar
  74. Fabrezi M, Emerson SB (2003) Parallelism and convergence in anuran fangs. J Zool Lond 260:41–51Google Scholar
  75. Fabrizio JJ, Boyle M, DiNardo S (2003) A somatic role for eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) in Drosophila spermatocyte development. Dev Biol 258:117–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Fernald RD (2000) Evolution of eyes. Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:444–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fleischer RC, James HF, Olson SL (2008) Convergent evolution of Hawaiian and Australo-Pacific honeyeaters from distant songbird ancestors. Curr Biol 18:1927–1931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Foster CA, Chiappe LM, Krause DW, Sampson SD (1996) The first Cretaceous bird from Madagascar. Nature 382:532–534Google Scholar
  79. Foster CA, Sampson SD, Chiappe LM, Krause DW (1998a) The theropod ancestry of birds: new evidence from the late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Science 279:1915–1919Google Scholar
  80. Foster CA, Sampson SD, Chiappe LM, Krause DW (1998b) Letters: genus correction. Science 280:179Google Scholar
  81. Francis D (1967) On the eyespot of the dinoflagellate, Nematodinium. J Exp Biol 47:495–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. French CE, Bell JML, Ward FB (2007) Diversity and distribution of hemerythrin-like proteins in prokaryotes. FEMS Microbial Lett 279:131–145Google Scholar
  83. Garm A, Coates MM, Gad R, Seymour J, Nilsson D-E (2007) The lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsalmus sp. are slow and color-blind. J Comp Physiol A 193:547–557Google Scholar
  84. Garm A, Andersson F, Nilsson D-E (2008) Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. Vision Res 48:1061–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gehring WJ (2005) New perspectives on eye development and the evolution of eyes and photoreceptors. J Hered 96:171–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Genise JF, Melchor RN, Archangelsky M, Bala LO, Straneck R, de Valais S (2008) Application of neoichnological studies of behavioural and taphonomic interpretation of fossil bird-like tracks from lacustrine settings: The late Triassic-early Jurassic? Santo Domingo Formation, Argentina. Paleogeog Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 272:143–161Google Scholar
  87. Gherardini PF, Wass MN, Helmer-Citterich M, Sternberg MJE (2007) Convergent evolution of enzyme active sites is not a rare phenomenon. J Mol Biol 372:817–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Giberson KW (2008) Saving Darwin: how to be a Christian and believe in evolution. HarperOne, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  89. Gillam EH, Ulanovsky N, McCracken GF (2007) Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar. Proc R Soc Lond B 274:651–660Google Scholar
  90. Givnish TJ et al (2005) Repeated evolution of net venation and fleshy fruits among monocots in shaded habitats confirms a priori predictions: evidence from an ndhF phylogeny. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:1481–1490Google Scholar
  91. Gómez F (2008) Erythropsidinium (Gymodiniales, Dinophyceae) in the Pacific Ocean, a unique dinoflagellate with an ocelloid and a piston. Eur J Protist 44:291–298Google Scholar
  92. Goodwin B (1994) How the leopard changed its spots: the evolution of complexity. Simon & Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Göpfert M, Robert D (1999) Nanometer acoustic sensitivity in male and female mosquitos. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:453–457Google Scholar
  94. Göpfert M, Robert D (2003) Motion generation by Drosophila mechanosensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:5514–5519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Graham LA, Davies PL (2002) The odorant-binding proteins of Drosophila melanogaster: annotation and characterization of a divergent gene family. Gene 292:43–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Grajal A (1995) Structure and function of the digestive tract of the hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin): a folivorous bird with foregut fermentation. Auk 112:20–28Google Scholar
  97. Green RL, Rose GJ (2004) Structure and function of neurons in the complex of the nucleus electrosensorius of Sternopygus and Eigenmannia: diencephalic substrates for the evolution of the jamming avoidance response. Brain Behav Evol 64:85–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Greuet C (1971) Étude ultrastructurale et évolution des cnidocystes de Nematodinium, péridinien Warnowiidae Lindemann. Protistologica 7:345–355Google Scholar
  99. Greuet C (1987) Complex organelles. In: Taylor FJR (ed) The biology of dinoflagellates. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 119–143Google Scholar
  100. Griffin DR (1958) Listening in the dark: the acoustic orientation of bats and men. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  101. Guo P, Hirano M, Herrin BR, Li J-X, Yu C-L, Sadlonova A, Cooper MD (2009) Dual nature of the adaptive immune system in lampreys. Nature 459:796–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hadrys T, DeSalle R, Sagasser S, Fischer N, Schierwater B (2005) The Trichoplax Pax B gene: a putative proto-Pax A/B/C gene predating the origin of nerve and sensory cells. Mol Biol Evol 22:1569–1578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Harzsch S, Hansson BS (2008) Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobila clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae), a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell. BMC Neurosci 9:art 58Google Scholar
  104. Heanue TA, Reshef R, Davis RJ, Mardon G, Oliver G, Tomarev S, Lassar AB, Tabin CJ (1999) Synergistic regulation of vertebrate muscle development by Dach2, Eya2, and Six1, homologs of genes required for Drosophila eye formation. Genes Dev 13:3231–3243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hollmann M, Engelmann J, von der Emde G (2008) Distribution, density and morphology of electroreceptor organs in mormyrid weakly electric fish: anatomical investigations of a receptor mosaic. J Zool Lond 276:149–158Google Scholar
  106. Hopkins C (1995) Convergent designs for electrogenesis and electroreception. Curr Opin Neurobiol 5:769–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hoshiyama D, Suga H, Iwabe N, Koyanagi M, Nikoh N, K-i K, Matsuda F, Honjo T, Miyata T (1998) Sponge Pax cDNA related to Pax-2/5/8 and ancient gene duplications in the Pax family. J Mol Evol 47:640–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hoshiyama D, Iwabe N, Miyata T (2007) Evolution of the gene families forming the Pax/Six regulatory network: isolation of genes from primitive animals and molecular phylogenetic analyses. FEBS Lett 581:1639–1643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hunt GR, Gray RD (2003) Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufacture. Proc R Soc B 270:867–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hunt GR, Gray RD (2004) The crafting of hook tools by wild New Caledonian crows. Proc R Soc B 271:S88–S90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hutchinson JR, Allen V (2009) The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds. Naturwissenschaften 96:423–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Isaza CE, Silaghi-Dumitrescu R, Iyer RB, Kurtz DM, Chan MK (2006) Structural basis for O2 sensing by the hemerythrin-like domain of a bacterial chemotaxis protein: substrate tunnel and fluxional N terminus. Biochem 45:9023–9031Google Scholar
  113. Jackson JC, Robert D (2006) Nonlinear auditory mechanism enhances female sounds for male mosquitoes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:16734–16739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Jacobs GH, Neitz M, Deegan JF, Neitz J (1996) Trichromatic colour vision in New World monkeys. Nature 382:156–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Jarvis ED, The Avian Brain Nomenclature Consortium et al (2005) Avian brains and a new understanding of vertebrate brain evolution. Nature Rev Neurosci 6:151–159Google Scholar
  116. Jeffery JE (2001) Pectoral fins of rhizodontids and the evolution of pectoral appendages in the tetrapod stem-group. Biol J Linn Soc 74:217–236Google Scholar
  117. Johanson Z, Ahlberg PE (1998) A complete primitive rhizodont from Australia. Nature 394:569–573Google Scholar
  118. Johnsen S (2001) Hidden in plain sight: the ecology and physiology of organismal transparency. Biol Bull 201:301–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Jonasova K, Kozmik Z (2008) Eye evolution: lens and cornea as an upgrade of animal visual system. Sem Cell Dev Biol 19:71–81Google Scholar
  120. Jones G, Holderied MW (2007) Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution. Proc R Soc Lond B 274:905–912Google Scholar
  121. Kaiser W (1988) Busy bees need rest, too. Behavioural and electromyographical sleep signs in honeybees. J Comp Physiol 163:565–584Google Scholar
  122. Kaissling K-E (1986) Chemo-electrical transduction in insect olfactory receptors. Annu Rev Neurosci 9:121–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kauffman SA (1993) The origins of order: self-organization and selection in evolution. New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  124. Kawasaki M (1997) Sensory hyperacuity in the jamming avoidance response of weakly electric fish. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:473–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kay LM, Stopfer M (2006) Information processing in the olfactory systems of insects and vertebrates. Sem Cell Dev Biol 17:433–442Google Scholar
  126. Kelber A, Balkenius A, Warrant EJ (2002) Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths. Nature 419:922–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. King N, JGI Sequencing Group (2008) The genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and the origins of metazoans. Nature 451:783–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kishida R, Goris RC, Terashima S-I, Dubbledam JL (1984) A suspected infrared-recipient nucleus in the brain-stem of the vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus. Brain Res 322:351–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kofoid CA, Swezy O (1921) The free-living unarmored Dinoflagellata. Mem Univ Calif 5Google Scholar
  130. Korchi A, Brossut R, Bouhin H, Delachambre J (1999) cDNA cloning of an adult male putative lipocalin specific to tergal gland aphrodisiac secretion in an insect (Leucophaea maderae). FEBS Lett 449:125–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Koyanagi M, Takano K, Tsukamoto H, Ohtsu K, Tokunaga F, Terakita A (2008) Jellyfish vision starts with cAMP signaling mediated by opsin-G(s) cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:15576–15580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kozmik Z (2008) The role of Pax genes in eye evolution. Brain Res Bull 75:335–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kozmik Z, Daube M, Frei E, Norman B, Kos L, Dishaw LJ, Noll M, Piatigorsky J (2003) Role of Pax genes in eye evolution: a cnidarian PaxB gene uniting Pax2 and Pax6 functions. Dev Cell 5:773–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kozmik Z, Swamynathan SK, Ruzickova J, Jonasova K, Paces V, Vicek L, Piatigorsky J (2008a) Cubozoan crystallins: evidence for convergent evolution of pax regulatory sequences. Evol Dev 10:52–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kozmik Z et al (2008b) Assembly of the cnidarian camera-type eye from vertebrate-like components. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:8989–8993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kuba MJ, Byrne RA, Meisel DV, Mather JA (2006) When do octopuses play? Effects of repeated testing, object type, age and food deprivation on object play in Octopus vulgaris. J Comp Psychol 120:184–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kuch U, Müller J, Mödden C, Mebs D (2006) Snake fangs from the Lower Miocene of Germany: evolutionary stability of perfect weapons. Naturwissenschaften 93:84–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Kumar JP (2009) The sine oculis homeobox (Six) family of transcription factors as regulators of development and disease. Cell Mol Life Sci 66:565–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kurtz DM (1999) Oxygen-carrying proteins: three solutions to a common problem. Essays Biochem 34:85–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kurusu M, Nagao T, Walldorf U, Flister S, Gehring WJ, Furukubo-Tokunaga K (2000) Genetic control of development of the mushroom body, the associative learning centers in the Drosophila brain by the eyeless, twin of eyeless, and dachshund genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:2140–2144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kutschera U (2009) Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, directional selection, and the evolutionary sciences today. Naturwissenschaften. doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0603-0 Google Scholar
  142. Kutschera U, Niklas KJ (2004) The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis. Naturwissenschaften 91:255–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kutschera U, Niklas KJ (2005) Endosymbiosis, cell evolution, and speciation. Theory Biosci 124:1–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kutschera U, Niklas KJ (2006) Photosynthesis research on yellowtops: macroevolution in progress. Theory Biosci 125:81–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Land MF (2002) The spatial resolution of the pinhole eye of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Proc R Soc B 270:185–188Google Scholar
  146. Larusso ND, Ruttenberg BE, Singh AK, Oakley TH (2008) Type II opsins: evolutionary origin by internal domain duplication? J Mol Evol 66:417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Latijnhouwers M, de Wit PJGM, Govers F (2003) Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponary to attack plants. Trends Microbiol 11:462–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lefebvre L, Reader SM, Sol D (2004) Brains, innovations and evolution in birds and primates. Brain Behav Evol 63:233–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lew RR, Levina NN, Walker SK, Garrill A (2004) Turgor regulation in hyphal organisms. Fungal Genet Biol 41:1007–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Lewis C, Long TAF (2005) Courtship and reproduction in Carybdea sivickisi (Cnidaria: Cubozoa). Mar Biol 147:477–483Google Scholar
  151. Leys SP, Cronin TW, Degnan BM, Marshall JN (2002) Spectral sensitivity in a sponge larva. J Comp Physiol A 188:199–202Google Scholar
  152. Li R-H, Lockley MG, Makovicky PJ, Matsukawa M, Norell MA, Harris JD, Liu M-W (2008) Behavioral and faunal implications of Early Cretaceous deinonychosaur trackways from China. Naturwissenschaften 95:185–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Long JA, Young GC, Holland T, Senden TJ, Fitzgerald EMG (2006) An exceptional Devonian fish from Australia sheds light on tetrapod origins. Nature 444:199–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Losos JB, Jackman TR, Larson A, de Queiroz K, Rodríguez-Schettino L (1998) Contingency and determinism in replicated adaptive radiations of island lizards. Science 279:2115–2118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Low PS, Shank SS, Sejnowski TJ, Margoliash D (2008) Mammalian-like features of sleep structure in zebra finches. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:9081–9086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Lundin C, Käll L, Kreher SA, Kapp K, Sonnhammer EL, Carlson JR, von Heijne G, Nilsson IM (2007) Membrane topology of the Drosophila OR83b odorant receptor. FEBS Lett 581:5601–5604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Macklem PT (2008) Emergent phenomena and the secrets of life. J Appl Physiol 104:1844–1846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. McNamara KJ (1997) Shapes of time: the evolution of growth and development. John Hopkins Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  159. Mainz T, Schmitz A, Schmitz H (2004) Variation in number and differentiation of the abdominal infrared receptors in the Australian ‘fire-beetle’ Merimna atrata (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Arthropod Struct Dev 33:419–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Makovicky PJ, Apesteguía S, Agnolín FL (2005) The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America. Nature 437:1007–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Marasco PD, Catania KC (2007) Response properties of primary afferents supplying Eimer’s organ. J Exp Biol 210:765–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Marin B, Nowack ECM, Melkonian M (2005) A plastid in the making: evidence for a secondary primary endosymbiosis. Protist 156:425–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Martin VJ (2002) Photoreceptors of cnidarians. Can J Zool 80:1703–1722Google Scholar
  164. Martin G, Rojas LM, Ramírez Y, McNeil R (2004) The eyes of oilbirds (Steatornis caripensis): pushing at the limits of sensitivity. Naturwissenschaften 91:26–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Martinez C, Nicolas A, van Tilbeurgh H, Egloff M-P, Cudrey C, Verger R, Cambillau C (1994) Cutinase, a lipolytic enzyme with a preformed oxyanion hole. Biochem 33:83–89Google Scholar
  166. Mather JA (2008a) Cephalopod consciousness: behavioural evidence. Consciousness Cognit 17:37–48Google Scholar
  167. Mather JA (2008b) To boldly go where no mollusc has gone before: personality, play, thinking and consciousness in cephalopods. Amer Malacol Bull 24:51–58Google Scholar
  168. Matus DQ, Pang K, Daly M, Martindale MQ (2007) Expression of Pax gene family numbers in the anthozoan cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis. Evol Dev 9:25–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Mayr G, Peters DS, Plodowiski G, Vogel O (2002) Bristle-like integumenary structures at the tail of the horned dinosaur Psittacosaurus. Naturwissenschaften 89:361–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Melchor RN, de Valais S, Genise JF (2002) Bird-like footprints from the late Triassic. Nature 417:936–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Midgley M (2003) The myths we live by. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  172. Milner ARC, Harris JD, Lockley MG, Kirkland JI, Matthews NA (2009) Bird-like anatomy, posture and behavior revealed by an early Jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace. PLoS ONE 4:e4591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Molnar RE (2008) Book review. J Vert Paleont 28:586–587Google Scholar
  174. Money NP, Davis CM, Ravishankar JP (2004) Biomechanical evidence for convergent evolution of the invasive growth process among fungi and oomycete water molds. Fungal Gene Biol 41:872–876Google Scholar
  175. Morrison CL, Harvey AW, Lavery S, Tieu K, Huang Y, Cunningham CW (2002) Mitochondrial gene rearrangements confirm the parallel evolution of the crab-like form. Proc R Soc B 269:345–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Nagel T (1974) What is like to be a bat. Phil Rev 83:433–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Nakayama T, K-i I (2009) Another acquisition of a primary photosynthetic organelle is underway in Paulinella chromatophora. Curr Biol 19:R284–R285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Negri A, Tedeschi G, Bonomi F, Zhang J-H, Kurtz DM (1994) Amino-acid sequences of the alpha- and beta-subunits of hemerythrin from Lingula reevii. Biochim Biophys Acta, Protein Struct Mol Enzymol 1208:277–285Google Scholar
  179. Nesbitt S (2007) The anatomy of Effigia okeeffeae (Archosauria, Suchia), theropod-like convergence, and the distribution of related taxa. Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 302:1–84Google Scholar
  180. Nesbitt SJ, Norell MA (2006) Extreme convergence in the body plans of an early suchian (Archosauria) and ornithomimid dinosaurs (Theropoda). Proc R Soc B 273:1045–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Neuweiler G (1990) Auditory adaptations for prey capture in echolocation. Physiol Rev 70:615–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Neuweiler G (2003) Evolutionary aspects of bat echolocation. J Comp Physiol A 189:245–256Google Scholar
  183. Nilsson D-E, Gislen L, Coates MM, Skogh C, Garm A (2005) Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye. Nature 435:201–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Nitz DA, van Swinderen B, Tononi G, Greenspan RJ (2002) Electrophysiological correlates of rest and activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol 12:1934–1940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Olofsson B, de Bono M (2008) Sleep: dozy worms and sleepy flies. Curr Biol 18:R204–R206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Pancer Z, Amemiya CT, Ehrhardt GRA, Ceitlin J, Gartland GL, Cooper MD (2004) Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey. Nature 430:174–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Pancer Z, Saha NR, Kasamatsu J, Suzuki T, Amemiya CT, Kasahara M, Cooper MD (2005) Variable lymphocyte receptors in hagfish. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:9224–9229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Parra-Olea G, Wake DB (2001) Extreme morphological and ecological homoplasy in tropical salamanders. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:7888–7891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Passardi F, Cosio C, Penel C, Dunand C (2005) Peroxidases have more functions than a Swiss army knife. Plant Cell Rep 24:255–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Pelosi P, Zhou J-J, Ban LP, Calvello M (2006) Soluble proteins in insect chemical communication. Cell Mol Life Sci 63:1658–1676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Perry J, Nalepa CA (2003) A new mode of parental care in cockroaches. Insect Sociaux 50:245–247Google Scholar
  192. Plaza S, De Jong DM, Gehring WJ, Miller DJ (2003) DNA-binding characteristics of cnidarian Pax-C and Pax-B proteins in vivo and in vitro: no simple relationship with the Pax-6 and Pax-2/5/8 classes. J Exp Zool, Mol Dev Evol 299B:26–35Google Scholar
  193. Polanyi M (1968) Life’s irreducible structure. Science 160:1308–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Pouchet G (1887) Quatrième contribution à l’histoire des péridiniens. J Anat Physiol Norm Path Homme Animaux 23:87–112Google Scholar
  195. Proske U, Gregory JE (2004) The role of push rods in platypus and echidna—some speculations. Proc Linn Soc New South Wales 125:319–326Google Scholar
  196. Prum RO, Torres R (2003) Structural colouration of avian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattered dermal collagen arrays. J Exp Biol 206:2409–2429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Prum RO, Torres RH (2004) Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays. J Exp Biol 207:2157–2172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pusch R, von der Emde G, Hollmann M, Bacelo J, Nöbel S, Grant K, Englemann J (2008) Active sensing in a mormyrid fish: electric images and peripheral modifications of the signal carrier give evidence of dual foveation. J Exp Biol 211:921–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Rattenborg NC, Martinez-Gonzalez D, Lesku JA (2009) Avian sleep homeostasis: convergent evolution of complex brains, cognition and sleep functions in mammals and birds. Neurosci Biobehavior Rev 33:253–270Google Scholar
  200. Rebay I, Silver SJ, Tootle TL (2005) New vision from eyes absent: transcription factors as enzymes. Trends Gen 21:163–171Google Scholar
  201. Richards TA, Dacks JB, Jenkinson JM, Thornton CR, Talbot NJ (2006) Evolution of filamentous plant pathogens: gene exchange across eukaryotic kingdoms. Curr Biol 16:1857–1864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Richerson JV, Borden JH, Hollingdale J (1972) Morphology of a unique sensillum placodeum on the antennae of Coeloides brunneri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Can J Zool 50:909–913Google Scholar
  203. Rüber L, Adams DC (2001) Evolutionary convergence of body shape and trophic morphology in cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. J Evol Biol 14:325–332Google Scholar
  204. Rueckert S, Leander BS (2008) Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Haplozoon praxillellae n. sp. (Dinoflagellata): a novel intestinal parasite of the maldanid polychaete Praxillella pacifica Berkeley. Eur J Protist 44:299–307Google Scholar
  205. Sachdev RNS, Catania KC (2002) Receptive fields and response properties of neurons in the star-nosed moles somatosensory fovea. J Neurophysiol 87:2602–2611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Sato K, Pellegrino M, Nakagawa T, Nakagawa T, Vosshall LB, Touhara K (2008) Insect olfactory receptors are heteromeric ligand-gated ion channels. Nature 452:1002–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Satterlie RA (2002) Neuronal control of swimming in jellyfish: a comparative story. Can J Zool 80:1654–1669Google Scholar
  208. Schmitz H, Trenner S, Hofmann MH, Bleckmann H (2000a) The ability of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera; Reduviidae) to approach a thermal source solely by its infrared radiation. J Insect Physiol 46:745–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Schmitz H, Schmitz A, Bleckmann H (2000b) A new type of infrared organ in the Australian “fire-beetle” Merimna atrata (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Naturwissenschaften 87:542–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Schmitz H, Schmitz A, Trenner S, Bleckmann H (2002) A new type of insect infrared organ of low thermal mass. Naturwissenschaften 89:226–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Schmitz A, Sehrbrock A, Schmitz H (2007) The analysis of the mechanosensory origin of the infrared sensilla in Melanophila acuminata (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) adduces new insight into the transduction mechanism. Arthropod Struct Dev 36:291–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Schmitz A, Gebhardt M, Schmitz H (2008) Microfluidic photomechanic receptors in a pyrophilous flat bug. Naturwissenschaften 95:455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Schram FR, Vonk R, Hof CHJ (1997) Mazon Creek Cycloidea. J Paleont 71:261–284Google Scholar
  214. Schreiber A, Storch V (1992) Free-cells and blood proteins of Priapulus caudatas Lamarck (Priapulida). Sarsia 76:261–266Google Scholar
  215. Schütz S, Weissbecker B, Hummel HE, Apel K-H, Schmitz H, Bleckmann H (1999) Insect antenna as a smoke detector. Nature 398:298–299Google Scholar
  216. Senter P (2007) A new look at the phylogeny of Coelurosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). J System Palaeont 5:429–463Google Scholar
  217. Seymour J (2002) One touch of venom. Nat Hist 111(7):72–75Google Scholar
  218. Seymour JE, Carette TJ, Sutherland PA (2004) Do box jellyfish sleep at night? Med J Aust 181:707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Shaw PJ, Cirelli C, Greenspan RJ, Tononi G (2000) Correlates of sleep and waking in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 287:1834–1837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Shomrat T, Zarrella I, Fiorito G, Hochner B (2008) The octopus vertical lobe modulates short-term learning rate and uses LTP to acquire long-term memory. Curr Biol 18:337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Shubin NH, Daeschler EB, Coates MI (2004) The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus. Science 304:90–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Shubin N, Tabin C, Carroll S (2009) Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty. Nature 457:818–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Skogh C, Garm A, Nilsson D-E, Ekström P (2006) Bilaterally symmetrical rhopalial nervous system of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. J Morph 267:1391–1405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Smart R, Kiely A, Beale M, Vargas E, Carraher C, Kralicek AV, Christie DL, Chen C, Newcomb RD, Warr CG (2008) Drosophila odorant receptors are novel seven transmembrane proteins that can signal independently of heterotrimeric G proteins. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:770–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Smith SGJ, Mahon V, Lambert MA, Fagan RP (2007) A molecular Swiss army knife: OmpA structure, function and expression. FEMS Microbiol Lett 273:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Snitting D (2008) A redescription of the anatomy of the late Devonian Spodichthys buetleri Jarvik, 1985 (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from East Greenland. J Vert Paleont 28:637–655Google Scholar
  227. Somanathan H, Borger RM, Warrant EJ, Kelber A (2008) Nocturnal bees learn landmark colours in starlight. Curr Biol 18:R996–R997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Soppa J (1994) Two hypotheses—one answer. Sequence comparison does not support an evolutionary link between halobacterial retinal proteins including bacteriorhodopsin and eukaryotic G-protein-coupled receptors. FEBS Lett 342:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Stensmyr MC, Erland S, Hallberg E, Wallén R, Greenaway P, Hansson BS (2005) Insect-like olfactory adaptations in the terrestrial giant robber crab. Curr Biol 15:116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Suarez RK, Welch KC, Hanna SK, Herrera MLG (2009) Flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight of the nectar bat, Glossophaga soricina: further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds. Comp Biochem Physiol 153:136–140Google Scholar
  231. Takács S, Bottomley H, Andreller I, Zaradnik T, Schwarz J, Bennett R, Strong W, Gries G (2009) Infrared radiation from hot cones on cool conifers attracts seed-feeding insects. Proc R Soc B 276:649–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Tallorovic SK, Zakon HH (2005) Electric organ discharge frequency jamming during social interactions in brown ghost knifefish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Anim Behav 70:1355–1365Google Scholar
  233. Tanaka K, Barmina O, Kopp A (2009) Distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolutionary diversification of Drosophila sex combs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:4764–4769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Taylor FJR (1980) On dinoflagellate evolution. Biosyst 13:65–108Google Scholar
  235. Taylor AH, Hunt CR, Holzhaider C, Gray RD (2007) Spontaneous metatool use by New Caledonian crows. Curr Biol 17:1504–1507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Tcherkez GBB, Farquhar GD, Andrews TJ (2006) Despite slow catalysis and confused substrate specificity, all ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases may be nearly perfectly optimized. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:7246–7251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Tegoni M, Pelosi M, Vincent F, Spinelli S, Campanacci V, Grolli S, Ramoni R, Cambillau C (2000) Mammalian odorant binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta, Protein Struct Mol Enzymol 1482:229–240Google Scholar
  238. Thomas JA, Moss CF, Vater M (eds) (2004) Echolocation in bats and dolphins. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  239. Thorne N, Chromey C, Bray S, Amrein H (2004) Taste perception and coding in Drosophila. Curr Biol 14:1065–1079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Turnbull WD (1978) Another look at dental specialization in the extinct sabre-tooth marsupial, Thylacosmilus, compared with its placental counterparts. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, function and evolution of teeth. Academic, London, pp 399–414Google Scholar
  241. Turner AH, Pol D, Clarke JA, Erickson GM, Norell MA (2007a) A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight. Science 317:1378–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Turner AH, Makonvicky PJ, Norell MA (2007b) Feather quill knobs in the dinosaur Velociraptor. Science 317:1721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Ulanovsky N, Fenton MB, Tsoar A, Korine C (2004) Dynamics of jamming avoidance in echolocating bats. Proc R Soc Lond B 271:1467–1475Google Scholar
  244. Van Holde KE, Miller KI, Decker H (2001) Hemocyanins and invertebrate evolution. J Biol Chem 276:15563–15566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Vences M, Kosuch J, Boistel R, Haddad CFB, La Marca E, Lötters S, Veith M (2003) Convergent evolution of aposematic coloration in Neotropical poison frogs: a molecular phylogenetic perspective. Org Divers Evol 3:215–226Google Scholar
  246. Voigt S, Buchwitz M, Fischer M, Krause D, Georgi R (2009) Feather-like development of Triassic diapsid skin appendages. Naturwissenschaften 96:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Vondran T, Apel K-H, Schmitz H (1995) The infrared receptor of Melanophila acuminata De Geer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): ultrastructural study of a unique thermoreceptor and its possible descent form a hair mechanoreceptor. Tissue Cell 27:645–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Vorobyeva EI (2003) A new approach to the problem of tetrapod origin. Paleont J 37:449–460Google Scholar
  249. Wake DB (1991) Homoplasy: the result of natural selection, or evidence of design limitations? Amer Nat 138:543–567Google Scholar
  250. Weinreich DM, Delaney NF, DePristo MA, Hartl DL (2006) Darwinian evolution can follow only very few mutational pathways to fitter proteins. Science 312:111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Weir AAS, Kacelnik A (2006) A New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) creatively re-designs tools by bending or unbending aluminium strips. Anim Cogn 9:317–334Google Scholar
  252. Welch KC, Bakken BH, del Rio CM, Suarez RK (2006) Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:1082–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Welch KC, Herrera LG, Suarez RK (2008) Dietary sugar as a direct fuel for flight in the nectarivorous bat Glossophaga soricina. J Exp Biol 211:310–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Welinder KG (1992) Superfamily of plant, fungal and bacterial peroxidases. Curr Opin Struct Biol 2:388–393Google Scholar
  255. Westfall JA, Bradbury PC, Townsend JW (1983) Ultrastructure of the dinoflagellate Polykrikos. I. Development of the nematocyst–taeniocyst complex and morphology of the site for extrusion. J Cell Sci 63:245–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Westneat MW, Alfaro ME, Wainwright PC, Bellwood DR, Grubich JR, Fessler JL, Clements KD, Smith LL (2005) Local phylogenetic divergence and global evolutionary convergence of skull function in reef fishes of the family Labridae. Proc R Soc B 272:993–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Wicher D, Schäfer R, Bauernfeind R, Stensmyr MC, Heller R, Heinemann SH, Hansson BS (2008) Drosophila odorant receptors are both ligand-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels. Nature 452:1007–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Williford A, Stay B, Bhattacharya D (2004) Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Evol Dev 6:67–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Wilson P, Wolfe AD, Armbruster WS, Thomson JD (2007) Constrained lability in floral evolution: counting convergent origins of hummingbird pollination in Penstemon and Keckiella. New Phytol 176:883–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Xu X, Zhang F-C (2005) A new maniraptorian dinosaur from China with long feathers on the metatarsus. Naturwissenschaften 92:173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Xu X, Zhou Z-H, Wang X-L, Kuang X-W, Zhang F-C, Du X-K (2003) Four-winged dinosaurs from China. Nature 421:335–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Xu X, Zhou Z-H, Wang X-L, Kuang X-W, Zhang F-C, Du X-K (2005) Could ‘four-winged’ dinosaurs fly? Nature 438:E3–E4Google Scholar
  263. Xu X, Zheng X-T, You H-L (2009) A new feather type in a nonavian theropod and the early evolution of feathers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:832–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Yang Y, Chauhan BK, Cveklova K, Cvekl A (2004) Transcription regulation of mouse αβ- and γF-crystallin genes in lens: opposite promoter-specific interactions between Pax6 and large Maf transcription factors. J Mol Biol 344:351–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Yeates TO, Tsai Y, Tanaka S, Sawaya MR, Kerfeld CA (2007) Self-assembly in the carboxysome: a viral capsid-like protein shell in bacterial cells. Biochem Soc Trans 35:508–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Yokayama S, Radlwimmer FB (2001) The molecular genetics and evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates. Genetics 158:1697–1710Google Scholar
  267. Young JZ (1976) The ‘cerebellum’ and the control of eye movements in cephalopods. Nature 264:572–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Zamocky M, Jakopitsch C, Furtmüller PG, Dunand C, Obinger C (2008) The peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily: reconstructed evolution of critical enzymes of the innate immune system. Proteins 72:589–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Zhang F-C, Zhou Z-H, Xu X, Wang X-L, Sullivan C (2008) A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like features. Nature 455:1105–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Zheng X-T, You H-L, Xu X, Dong Z-M (2009) An early Cretaceous heterodontosaurid dinosaur with filamentous integumentary structures. Nature 458:333–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Zhu M, Zhao W-J, Jia L-T, Lu J, Qiao T, Qu Q-M (2009) The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters. Nature 458:469–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Zubieta C et al (2007) Identification and structural characterization of heme binding in a novel dye-decolorizing peroxidase, Tyr A. Proteins 69:234–243PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations