, Volume 96, Issue 11, pp 1293–1312

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

  • Rolf G. Beutel
  • Frank Friedrich
  • Richard A. B. Leschen


Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics—yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.


Darwin Coleoptera Classification Phylogeny Systematics 


  1. Anton E, Beutel RG (2006) On the head morphology of Lepiceridae (Coleoptera: Myxophaga) and the systematic position of the family and suborder. Eur J Entomol 103:85–95Google Scholar
  2. Ax P (1987) The phylogenetic system: the systematization of organisms on the basis of their phylogenesis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Baehr M (1975) Skelett und Muskulatur des Thorax von Priacma serrata Leconte (Coleoptera, Cupedidae). Z Morphol Tiere 81:55–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balke M, Ribera I, Beutel RG (2003) Dytiscoidea incertae sedis: Aspidytes wrasei gen.n, sp.n.—an enigmatic new adephagan beetle discovered in Shaanxi, China (Coleoptera). Water Beetles of China III 12:53–66Google Scholar
  5. Balke M, Ribera I, Beutel RG, Viloria A, Garcia M, Vogler AP (2008) Systematic placement of the recently discovered beetle family Meruidae (Coleoptera: Dytiscoidea) based on molecular data. Zool Scr 37:647–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrett PH (1977) The collected papers of C. Darwin. 2 vols. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  7. Belkaceme T (1991) Skelett und Muskulatur des Kopfes und Thorax von Noterus laevis Sturm. Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie und Phylogenie der Noteridae (Coleoptera: Adephaga). Stuttg Beitr Naturkd, A 462:1–94Google Scholar
  8. Bernard D, Ribera I, Komarek A, Beutel RG (2009) Phylogenetic analysis of Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera, Polyphaga) based on molecular data and morphological characters of adults and immature stages. Ins Syst Evol 40:3–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beutel R (1986) Skelet und Muskulatur des Kopfes und Thorax von Hygrobia tarda (Herbst). Ein Beitrag zur Klärung der phylogenetischen Beziehungen der Hydradephaga (Insecta: Coleoptera). Stuttg Beitr Naturkd, A 388:1–54Google Scholar
  10. Beutel RG (1999) Morphology and evolution of the larval head structures of Hydrophiloidea and Histeroidea (Coeloptera: Staphylinidae). Tijdschr Entomol 142:9–30Google Scholar
  11. Beutel RG, Friedrich F (2008) A renaissance of insect morphology—µ-Ct and other innovative techniques. DGaaE Nachr 22:5–8Google Scholar
  12. Beutel RG, Haas F (2000) Phylogenetic relationships of the suborders of Coleoptera (Insecta). Cladistics 16:103–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beutel RG, Leschen RAB (2005a) Phylogenetic analysis of Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera) based on characters of larvae and adults. Syst Entomol 30:510–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beutel RG, Leschen RAB (eds) (2005b) Coleoptera, vol. I. Morphology and systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphaga partim). Handbook of Zoology, vol. IV, Arthropoda: Insecta. De Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  15. Beutel RG, Maddison DR, Haas A (1998) Phylogenetic analysis of Myxophaga (Coleoptera) using larval characters. Syst Entomol 24:1–23Google Scholar
  16. Beutel RG, Balke M, Steiner WE (2006) On the systematic position of Meruidae (Coleoptera, Adephaga) and the phylogeny of the smaller hydradephagan families. Cladistics 22:102–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beutel RG, Ge S-Q, Hörnschemeyer T (2008) On the head morphology of Tetraphalerus, the phylogeny of Archostemata and the basal branching events in Coleoptera. Cladistics 23:1–29Google Scholar
  18. Bils W (1976) Das Abdomenende weiblicher, terrestrisch lebender Adephaga (Coleoptera) und seine Bedeutung für die Phylogenie. Zoomorph 84:113–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bitsch J (1966) L'évolution des structures céphaliques chez les larves de coléoptères. Ann Soc entomol Fr (N.S.) 2:255–324Google Scholar
  20. Bøving AG, Craighead FC (1931) An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera. Entomol Am 11:1–125Google Scholar
  21. Boyce TM, Zwick ME, Aquadro CF (1994) Mitochondrial DNA in the bark weevils: phylogeny and evolution in the Pissodes strobi species group (Coleoptera: Curculionidea). Mol Biol Evol 11:183–194Google Scholar
  22. Brauer F (1869) Betrachtungen über die Verwandlungen der Insecten im Sinne der Deszendenztheorie. Verh Zool-Bot Ges Wien 19:299–318Google Scholar
  23. Brower AVZ (2000) Evolution is not a necessary assumption of cladistics. Cladistics 16:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burmeister EG (1976) Der Ovipositor der Hydradephaga (Coleoptera) und seine phylogenetische Bedeutung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Dytiscidae. Zoomorph 85:165–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cain AJ (1957) Deductive and inductive methods in post-Linnean taxonomy. Proc Linn Soc Lond 170:185–217Google Scholar
  26. Caterino MS, Vogler AP (2002) The phylogeny of the Histeroidea (Coleoptera: Staphyliniformia). Cladistics 18:394–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Caterino MS, Cho S, Sperling FAH (2000) The current state of insect molecular systematics: a thriving tower of Babel. Annu Rev Entomol 45:1–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Caterino MS, Shull VL, Hammond PM, Vogler AP (2002) Basal relationships of Coleoptera inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Zool Scr 31:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clare AS, Evans LV (eds) (2000) Marine biofouling. International Symposium, Plymouth, 1999. Biofouling 16:81–365Google Scholar
  30. Crowson EA (1995) Life with R. A. Crowson. In: Pakaluk J, Ślipiński SA (eds) Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, pp 5–10Google Scholar
  31. Crowson RA (1938) The metendosternite in Coleoptera: a comparative study. Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 94:273–310Google Scholar
  32. Crowson RA (1944) Further studies on the metendosternite in Coleoptera: a comparative study. Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 87:397–416Google Scholar
  33. Crowson RA (1950) The classification of the families of British Coleoptera. Entomol Mon Mag 86:149–171 274–288, 327–344Google Scholar
  34. Crowson RA (1954) The classification of the families of British Coleoptera. Entomol Mon Mag 90:57–63Google Scholar
  35. Crowson RA (1955) The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera. Lloyd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Crowson RA (1959) Studies on the Dermestoidea (Coleoptera), with special reference to the New Zealand fauna. Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 111:81–94Google Scholar
  37. Crowson RA (1960) The phylogeny of Coleoptera. Annu Rev Entomol 5:111–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Crowson RA (1964) A review of the classification of Cleroidea (Coleoptera), with descriptions of two genera of Peltidae and of several new larval types. Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 116:275–327Google Scholar
  39. Crowson RA (1970) Classification and biology. Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Crowson RA (1973) Further observations on Phloeostichidae and Cavognathidae, with definitions of new genera from Australia and New Zealand. Coleopt Bull 27:54–62Google Scholar
  41. Crowson RA (1975) Anti-Darwinism among the molecular biologists. Nature 254:464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Crowson RA (1976) The systematic position and implications of Crowsoniella. Boll Mus Civ Stor Nat Verona 2:456–463Google Scholar
  43. Crowson RA (1981) The biology of Coleoptera. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Crowson RA (1982) Computers versus imagination in the reconstruction of phylogeny. In: Joysey KA, Friday AE (eds) Problems of phylogenetic reconstruction. Academic, London, pp 245–255Google Scholar
  45. Crowson RA (1991) A critique of current cladistics. J Nat Hist 25(1):3–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Darwin C (1845) Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world, under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N., 2nd edn. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Darwin C (1851) A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. The Lepatidae; or, pedunculated cirripedes. Ray Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Darwin C (1859) On the origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Darwin C (1871) The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. Desmond A, Moore J (1991) Darwin. The life of a tormented evolutionist. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Dönges J (1954) Der Kopf von Cionus scrophulariae L. (Curculionidae). Zool Jb Anat 74:1–76Google Scholar
  52. Erwin T (1988) The tropical forest canopy. The heart of biotic diversity. In: Wilson EO (ed) Biodiversity. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp 123–129Google Scholar
  53. Farrell BD (1998) “Inordinate fondness” explained: Why are there so many beetles? Science 281:553–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Finston TL, Peck SB, Perry RB (1997) Population density and dispersal ability in Darwin’s darklings: flightless beetles of the Galápagos Islands. Pan-Pac Entomol 73:110–121Google Scholar
  55. Fleck G, Ullrich B, Brenk M, Wallnisch C, Orland M, Bleidissel S, Misof BA (2008) Phylogeny of anisopterous dragonflies (Insecta, Odonata) using mtRNA genes and mixed nucleotide/doublet models. J Zoolog Syst Evol Res 46:310–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Forbes WTM (1922) The wing-venation of the Coleoptera. Ann Entomol Soc Am 15:328–345Google Scholar
  57. Forbes WTM (1926) The wing folding patterns of Coleoptera. J N Y entomol Soc 34(42–68):91–139Google Scholar
  58. Forey PL, Humphries C, Kitching JIJ, Scotland RW, Siebert DJ, Williams DM (eds) (1992) Cladistics: a practical course in systematics, vol. 10. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Friedrich F, Beutel RG (2008) Micro-computer tomography and a renaissance of insect morphology. Proc SPIE 7048:1–6Google Scholar
  60. Friedrich F, Pohl H, Hünefeld F, Beckmann F, Herzen J, Beutel RG (2008) SRμCT-based study of external and internal structures of adults and larvae of Endopterygota (Hexapoda). Hasylab Ann Rep 2007, Hamburg, pp 1527–1528Google Scholar
  61. Friedrich F, Farrell BD, Beutel RG (2009) The thoracic morphology of Archostemata and the relationships of the extant suborders of Coleoptera (Hexapoda). Cladistics 24:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ghiselin MT (1991) Classical and molecular phylogenetics. Boll Zool 58:289–294Google Scholar
  63. Grebennikov VV, Newton AF (2009) Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera). Eur J Entomol 106:275–301Google Scholar
  64. Grimaldi D, Engel MS (2005) Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Haeckel E (1866) Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, II. Georg Reimer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  66. Haeckel E (1874) Anthropogenie oder Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen. Gemeinverständliche wissenschaftliche Vorträge über die Grundzüge der menschlichen Keimes- und Stammes-Geschichte. Wilhelm Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  67. Haeckel E (1896) Systematische Phylogenie der wirbellosen Thiere (Invertebrata). Zweiter Teil des Entwurfs einer systematischen Phylogenie, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  68. Haldane JBS (1949) Suggestions as to quantitative measurement of rates of evolution. Evolution 3:51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Handlirsch A (1908) Die Fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Lieferung 8–9, pp. 1121–1430, vii–ix. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  70. Hansen M (1991) The hydrophiloid beetles: phylogeny, classification and a revision of the genera (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). Biol Skr Dan Vid Sels 40:1–367Google Scholar
  71. Hennig W (1950) Grundzüge einer Theorie der phylogenetischen Systematik. Deutscher Zentralverlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  72. Hennig W (1966) Phylogenetic systematics. Univ. Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  73. Hennig (1969) Die Stammesgeschichte der Insekten. Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt a.M.Google Scholar
  74. Hinton HE (1934) Two coleopterous families new to Mexico. Pan-Pac Entomol 9:160–162Google Scholar
  75. Hinton HE (1940) A monographic revision of the Mexican water beetles of the family Elmidae. Novit Zool 42:217–396Google Scholar
  76. Hinton HE (1945) A monograph of the beetles associated with stored products. vol. I. British Museum of Natural History, London, p 433Google Scholar
  77. Hinton HE (1946a) The "gin-traps" of some beetle pupae; a protective device which appears to be unknown. Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 97:473–496Google Scholar
  78. Hinton HE (1946b) A new classification of insect pupae. Proc Zool Soc Lond 116:282–328Google Scholar
  79. Hinton HE (1955) On the respiratory adaptions, biology and taxonomy of the Psephenidae, with notes on some related families (Coleoptera). Proc Zool Soc Lond 125:543–568Google Scholar
  80. Hinton HE (1957) The spiracular gills of insects. Proc X Int Congr Ent Montreal 1:543–548Google Scholar
  81. Hinton HE (1966) Respiratory adaptations of the pupae of beetles of the family Psephenidae. Phil Trans R Soc London (B) 251:211–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hinton HE (1967) On the spiracles of the larvae of the suborder Myxophaga (Coleoptera). Austral J Zool 15:955–959Google Scholar
  83. Hinton HE (1977) Enabling mechanisms. Proc XV Int Congr Ent, Wash, pp. 71–83Google Scholar
  84. Hinton HE (1981) Biology of insect eggs, 3 vols. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  85. Hörnschemeyer T, Beutel RG, Pasop F (2002) Head structures of Priacma serrata Leconte (Coleoptera, Archostemata) inferred from x-ray tomography. J Morph 252(3):298–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Huelsenbeck JP, Larget B, Miller RE, Ronquist F (2002) Potential application and pitfalls of Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Syst Biol 51:673–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hull DL (1988) Science as a process: an evolutionary account of the social and conceptual development of science. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  88. Hunt T, Bergsten J, Levkanicova Z, Papadopoulou A, St John O, Wild R, Hammond PM, Ahrens D, Balke M, Caterino MS, Gómez-Zurita J, Ribera I, Barraclough TG, Bocakova M, Bocak L, Vogler AP (2007) A comprehensive phylogeny of beetles reveals the evolutionary origins of a superradiation. Science 318:1913–1916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jeannel R, Paulian R (1944) Morphologie abdominale des Coléoptères et systématique de l'ordre. Rev Fr Entomol 9:65–109Google Scholar
  90. Jones MRL, Leschen RAB (2008) Beetles in the diet of six species of deep-sea fish. NZ J Zool 35:251–253Google Scholar
  91. Kirejtshuk AG (1991) Evolution of mode of life as the basis for division of the beetles into groups of high taxonomic rank. In: Zunino M, Bellés X, Blas M (eds) Advances in Coleopterology. European Association of Coleopterology, Barcelona, pp 249–262Google Scholar
  92. Kirejtshuk AG (2000) Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae (Lafer, 1966)—recent representative of the Jurassic Coleopterous fauna (Coleoptera, Archostemata, Jurodidae). Proc Zool Inst RAS 281:21–216Google Scholar
  93. Kjer KM, Gillespie JJ, Ober KA (2007) Opinions on multiple sequence alignment, and an empirical comparison of repeatability and accuracy between POY and structural alignments. Syst Biol 56:133–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kolbe HJ (1901) Vergleichend-morphologische Untersuchungen an Coleopteren nebst Grundlagen zu einem System und zur Systematik derselben. Arch Naturgesch 67 (Beih): 89–150, Tafel II–IIIGoogle Scholar
  95. Kukalová J (1969) On the Systematic position of the supposed Permian beetles, Tshekardocoleidae, with a description of a new collection from Moravia. Sborn Geol Ved, Rada P Paleont 11:139–144Google Scholar
  96. Kukalová-Peck J, Lawrence JF (2004) Relationships among coleopteran suborders and major endoneopteran lineages: evidence from hind wing characters. Eur J Entomol 101:95–144Google Scholar
  97. Kuschel G (1995) A phylogenetic classification of Curculionoidea to families and subfamilies. Mem Entomol Soc Wash 14:5–33Google Scholar
  98. Kutschera, U (2009) Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, directional selection, and the evolutionary sciences today. Naturwissenschaften (in press) doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0603-0
  99. Lafer GS (1996) Fam. Sikhotealiniidae. In: Lafer PA (ed) Key to the insects of the Russian Far East. vol. III, part 3. Dal’nauka, Vladivostok, pp. 298–302Google Scholar
  100. Larsén O (1966) On the morphology and function of locomotor organs of the Gyrinidae and other Coleoptera. Opusc Entomol (Suppl) 30:1–241Google Scholar
  101. Latreille PA (1825) Familles Naturelles du Règne animal. Baillière, ParisGoogle Scholar
  102. Lawrence JF (1977) The family Pterogeniidae, with notes on the phylogeny of the Heteromera. Coleopt Bull 31:25–56Google Scholar
  103. Lawrence JF (1982) Coleoptera. In: Parker S (ed) Synopsis and classification of living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 482–553Google Scholar
  104. Lawrence JF (1988) Rhinorhipidae, a new beetle family from Australia, with comments on the phylogeny of the Elateriformia. Invertebr Taxon 2:1–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lawrence JF (1999) The Australian Ommatidae (Coleoptera), with a new species, a putative larva and comments on the suborder Archostemata. Invertebr Taxon 13:369–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lawrence JF, Britton EB (1991) Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO (ed) Insects of Australia, vol 2, 2nd edn. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, pp 543–683Google Scholar
  107. Lawrence JF, Britton EB (1994) Australian beetles. Melbourne University Press, CarltonGoogle Scholar
  108. Lawrence JF, Newton AF (1982) Evolution and classification of beetles. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 13:261–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lawrence JF, Newton AF (1995) Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera (with selected genera, notes, references and data on family-group names). In: Pakaluk J, Ślipiński SA (eds) Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, pp 779–1006Google Scholar
  110. Lawrence JF, Ślipiński SA, Pakaluk J (1995) From Latreille to Crowson: a history of the high level of beetles. In: Pakaluk J, Ślipiński SA (eds) Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, pp 86–154Google Scholar
  111. Lawrence JF, Hastings AM, Dallwitz MJ, Paine TA, Zurcher EJ (1999a) Beetle larvae of the world descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. CD-ROM, Version 1.1 for MS-Windows. CSIRO, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  112. Lawrence JF, Hastings AM, Dallwitz MJ, Paine TA, Zurcher EJ (1999b) Beetles of the world: a key and information system for families and subfamilies. CD-ROM, Version 1.0 for MS-Windows. CSIRO, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  113. Leng CW (1920) Catalogue of the Coleoptera of North America, North of Mexico. John D. Sherman Jr, Mount VernonGoogle Scholar
  114. Leschen RAB (1999) Systematics of convex Nitidulinae (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): phylogenetic relationships, convexity, and the origin of phallalophagy. Invertebr Taxon 13:845–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Leschen RAB (2000) Roy A. Crowson 1915–1999. N Z Entomol 22:102–104Google Scholar
  116. Leschen RAB, Beutel RG (2005) Elateriformia Crowson (1960). In: Beutel RG, Leschen RAB (eds) Coleoptera, vol. I. Morphology and Systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphaga partim). Handbook of Zoology, vol. IV, Arthropoda: Insecta. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 427–429Google Scholar
  117. Leschen RAB, Buckley TR (2007) Multistate characters and diet shifts: evolution of Erotylidae (Coleoptera). Syst Biol 56:97–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Leschen RAB, Lawrence JF, Ślipiński SA (2005) Classification of basal Cucujoidea (Coleoptera: Polyphaga), cladistic analysis, keys and review of new families. Invert Syst 19:17–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Levasseur C, Lapointe F-J (2001) War and peace in phylogenetics: a rejoinder on total evidence and consensus. Syst Biol 50:881–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lewis PO (2001) A likelihood approach to estimating phylogeny from discrete morphological character data. Syst Biol 50:913–925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Liebherr JK (1988) Zoogeography of Caribbean insects. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  122. Liebherr JK, Hajek AE (1990) A cladistic test of the taxon cycle and taxon pulse. Cladistics 6:39–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Liebherr JK, Zimmerman EC (1998) Cladistic analysis, phylogeny, and biogeography of Hawaiian Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Syst Entomol 23:137–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lo N, Tokuda G, Watanabe H, Rose H, Slaytor M, Maekwa K, Bandi C, Noda H (2000) Evidence from multiple gene sequences indicates that termites evolved from wood-feeding cockroaches. Curr Biol 10:801–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Maddison DR (1994) Phylogenetic methods for inferring the evolutionary history and processes of change in discretely valued characters. Annu Rev Entomol 39:267–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Maddison WP, Maddison DR (1992) MacClade, version 3: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  127. Maddison WP, Donoghue MJ, Maddison DR (1984) Outgroup analysis and parsimony. Syst Zool 33:83–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Maier W (2008) Zur morphologischen und phylogenetischen Methodologie von Hermann Weber. Entomol Gen 31:113–117Google Scholar
  129. Marren P (2008) Darwin’s war-horse: beetle collecting in the 19th-century England. Brit Wildl 19:153–159Google Scholar
  130. Marvaldi AE, Sequeira AS, O'Brien CW, Farrell BD (2002) Molecular and morphological phylogenetics of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea): Do niche shifts accompany diversification? Syst Biol 51:761–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Marvaldi AE, Duckett CN, Kjer KM, Gillespie JJ (2009) Structural alignment of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences provides insights into phylogeny of Phytophaga (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea and Chrysomeloidea). Zool Scr 38:63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mayr E (1975) Grundlagen der Zoologischen Systematik. Paul Parey, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  133. Meier R, Lim GS (2009) Conflict, convergent evolution, and the relative importance of immature and adult characters in endopterygote phylogenetics. Annu Rev Entomol 54:85–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mickoleit G (1961) Untersuchungen Zur Thoraxmorphologie der Thysanoptera. Zool Jb Anat Ontog Tiere 79:1–92Google Scholar
  135. Mickoleit G (1969) Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen and der pterothorakalen Pleurotergalmuskulatur der Neuroptera und Coleoptera. Z Morphol Tiere 64:151–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mickoleit G (1973) Über den Ovipositor der Neuropteroidea und Coleoptera und seine phylogenetische Bedeutung. Z Morphol Tiere 74:37–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Minelli A (1993) Biological systematics: the stare of the art. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  138. Mitter C, Farrell BD, Wiegmann BM (1988) The phylogenetic study of adaptive zones: Has phytophagy promoted insect diversification? Amer Natural 132:107–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Newton AF, Thayer MK (1995) Protopselaphinae new subfamily for Protopselaphus new genus from Malaysia, with a phylogenetic analysis and review of the Omaliine group of Staphylinidae including Pselaphidae (Coleoptera). In: Pakaluk J, Ślipiński SA (eds) Biology, phylogeny and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy A. Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, pp 219–320Google Scholar
  140. Newton AF, Matthews EG, Muona J (2000) John F. Lawrence—coleopterist par excellence. Invert Syst 14:721–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Novotny V, Miller SE, Hulcr J, Drew RAI, Basset Y, Janda M, Setliff GP, Darrow K, Stewart AJA, Auga J, Isua B, Molem K, Manumbor M, Tamtiai E, Mogia M, Weiblen GD (2007) Low beta diversity of herbivorous insects in tropical forests. Nature 448:692–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Oberprieler RG, Marvaldi A, Anderson R (2007) Weevils, weevils, weevils everywhere. Zootaxa 1668:491–520Google Scholar
  143. Ogden TH, Rosenberg M (2007) Alignment and topological accuracy of the direct optimization approach via POY and traditional phylogenetics via Clustal W +PAUP*. Syst Biol 56:182–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Pace R (1975) An exceptional endogeous beetle: Crowsoniella relicta N. Gen. N. Sp. of Archostemata Tetraphaleridae from Central Italy. Boll Mus Civ Stor Nat Verona 2:445–458Google Scholar
  145. Pakaluk J, Ślipiński SA (eds) (1995) Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy Crowson. Museum I Instytut Zoologii PAN, WarszawaGoogle Scholar
  146. Peyerimhoff P de (1933) Les larves des Coléoptères d'apres Böving et Craighead et les grands criteriums de l'ordre. Ann Soc entomol France 102:77–106Google Scholar
  147. Ponomarenko AG (1969) The historical development of archostematan beetles. (in Russian). Tr paleont Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 125:1–238Google Scholar
  148. Ponomarenko AG (1977) Suborder Adephaga, etc. (pp. 3–104). In: Arnoldy LV, Jerikin VV, Nikritin LM, Ponomarenko AG (eds) Mesozoic Coleoptera (in Russian). Tr Palaeont Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 161:1–183Google Scholar
  149. Ponomarenko AG (1995) The geological history of beetles. In: Pakaluk J, Ślipiński SA (eds) Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy Crowson. Museum I Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, pp 155–171Google Scholar
  150. Rasnitsyn AP, Quicke DLJ (eds) (2002) History of insects. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  151. Reif W, Thomas RDK, Fischer MS (1985) Constructional morphology: the analysis of constraints in evolution dedicated to A. Seilacher in honour of his 60. birthday. Acta Biotheor 34:233–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ribera I, Beutel RG, Balke M, Vogler AP (2002) Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera. Proc R Soc Lond 269:2351–2157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Richards OW, Davis RG (1994) Imm’s general textbook of entomology. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  154. Risler H (1954) Der Kopf von Bovicola caprae (Gurlt) (Mallophaga). Zool Jb Anat 71:289–426Google Scholar
  155. Schiødte JMC (1864, 1883) De metamorphosi Eleutheratorum observationes: bidrag til insekternes udviklingshistorie. Naturhist Tidskr 1 (3):193–232 [pls 1–10 (1862), 13:415–426, pl 18 (1863)]Google Scholar
  156. Sharp D, Muir F (1912) The male genital tube in Coleoptera. Trans Entomol Soc Lond 1912:477–642Google Scholar
  157. Sheffield NC, Song H, Cameron SL, Whiting MF (2008) A comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes in Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) and genome descriptions of six new beetles. Mol Biol Evol 25:2499–2509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shull VL, Vogler AP, Baker MD, Maddison DR, Hammond PM (2001) Sequence alignment of 18S ribosomal RNA and the basal relationships of adephagan beetles: evidence for monophyly of aquatic families and the placement of Trachypachidae. Syst Biol 50:945–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Simpson GG (1961) Principles of animal taxonomy. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  160. Ślipiński SA, Pakaluk J (1992) Problems in the classification of the cerylonid series of Cucujoidea (Coleoptera). In: Zunino M, Bellés X, Blas M (eds) Advances in Coleopterology. Asociacíon Europea de Coleopterologia, Barcelona, pp 79–88Google Scholar
  161. Snodgrass RE (1935) Priniciples of insect morphology. MacGraw-Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  162. Spangler PJ, Steiner WE (2005) A new aquatic beetle family, Meruidae, from Venezuela (Coleoptera: Adephaga). Syst Entomol 30:339–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tröster G (1987) Skelet und Muskulatur des Kopfes der Larve von Pterostichus nigrita (Paykull) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Stuttg Beitr Naturk (A) 399:1–23Google Scholar
  164. v Emden FI (1932) Die Larven der Callirhipini, eine mutmaßliche Cerophytum-Larve und Familien-Bestimmungstabellen der Larven der Malacodermata-Sternoxia-Reihe (Coleoptera). Bull Ann Soc R Entomolog Belg 72:199–259Google Scholar
  165. Verhoeff KW (1923) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Coleopteren Larven unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Clavicornia. Arch Naturgesch 89:1–109 pls I–VIIGoogle Scholar
  166. Vogler AP, Pearson DL (1996) A molecular phylogeny of the tiger beetles (Cicidelidae): congruence of mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA data sets. Mol Phyl Evol 6:321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wägele J-W (2001) Grundlagen der phylogenetischen Systematik. Verlag Friedrich Pfeil, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  168. Wallace AR (1869) The Malay archipelago. Harper & Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  169. Weber H (1933) Lehrbuch der Entomologie. Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  170. Weber H (1938) Grundriß der Insektenkunde. Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  171. Weber H (1955) Stellung und Aufgaben der Morphologie in der Zoologie der Gegenwart. Verh Dt Zool Ges Tübingen 1954. Suppl Zool Anz 18:137–159Google Scholar
  172. Weber H (1960) Konstruktionsmorphologie. Zool Jb Allg Zool Physiol 68:1–112Google Scholar
  173. Weber H (1969) Die Elefantenlaus Haematomyzus elefantis Piaget 1869. Zoologica 41:I–VI 1-154 + 1 plGoogle Scholar
  174. Wheeler QD (1995) The “old systematics”: classification and phylogeny. In: Pakaluk J, Ślipiński SA (eds) Biology, phylogeny, and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th birthday of Roy Crowson. Museum I Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, pp 11–30Google Scholar
  175. Wheeler WC, Gladstein DS, De Laet J (1996–2003) POY. Version 3.0. (current version 3.0.11). Documentation by Janies, D. and W. Wheeler, W. Commandline documentation by De Laet J and Wheeler WC
  176. Wild AL, Maddison DR (2008) Evaluating nuclear protein-coding genes for phylogenetic utility in the Coleoptera. Mol Phyl Evol 48:877–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Zherikhin VV (1999) Cladistics in palaeontology: problems and constraints. Proceedings of the first international Palaeoentomological conference, Moscow 1998 99:193–199Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf G. Beutel
    • 1
  • Frank Friedrich
    • 1
    • 2
  • Richard A. B. Leschen
    • 3
  1. 1.Entomology groupInstitut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem MuseumJenaGermany
  2. 2.Biozentrum Grindel und Zoologisches MuseumUniversität HamburgHamburgGermany
  3. 3.New Zealand Arthropod CollectionAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations