, 96:1373 | Cite as

A comparative approach to the principal mechanisms of different memory systems

  • Ludger Rensing
  • Michael Koch
  • Annette BeckerEmail author


The term “memory” applies not only to the preservation of information in neuronal and immune systems but also to phenomena observed for example in plants, single cells, and RNA viruses. We here compare the different forms of information storage with respect to possible common features. The latter may be characterized by (1) selection of pre-existing information, (2) activation of memory systems often including transcriptional, and translational, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms, (3) subsequent consolidation of the activated state in a latent form (standby mode), and (4) reactivation of the latent state of memory systems when the organism is exposed to the same (or conditioned) signal or to previous selective constraints. These features apparently also exist in the “evolutionary memory,” i.e., in evolving populations which have highly variable mutant spectra.


Long-term potentiation (LTP) Consolidation Retrieval Memory T and B cells Plant memories Evolutionary memory 



We thank Ulrike Nagler-Timm for critical comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludger Rensing
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Koch
    • 1
    • 3
  • Annette Becker
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of BremenBremenGermany
  2. 2.Cell BiologyUniversity of BremenBremenGermany
  3. 3.NeurobiologyUniversity of BremenBremenGermany
  4. 4.Molecular Genetics of PlantsUniversity of BremenBremenGermany

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