Advertisement

Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 96, Issue 5, pp 565–574 | Cite as

The mammal assemblage of the hominid site TM266 (Late Miocene, Chad Basin): ecological structure and paleoenvironmental implications

  • Soizic Le Fur
  • Emmanuel Fara
  • Hassane Taïsso Mackaye
  • Patrick VignaudEmail author
  • Michel Brunet
Original Paper

Abstract

Characterizing the paleoenvironmental context of the first hominids is a key issue for understanding their behavioral and morphological evolution. The present study aims at reconstructing the paleoenvironment of the TM266 vertebrate assemblage (Toros-Menalla, Northern Chad) that yielded the earliest known hominid Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7 Ma). For the first time, a quantitative analysis is carried out on the fossil mammal assemblage associated with that hominid. Two complementary approaches were applied: (1) the analysis of the relative abundances of taxa and their habitat preferences; and (2) the study of the distribution of taxa within three meaningful ecovariables: locomotion, feeding preferences, and body mass. The resulting taxonomic and paleoecological structures are used to reconstruct the diversity and the relative extent of the habitats in that part of northern Chad seven million years ago. The paleoenvironment was composed of open areas with dry and humid grasslands, prevailing over wooded habitats. Water was also widely available as freshwater bodies and certainly swamps. It appears that the high habitat diversity of the landscape is a common feature among paleoenvironments associated with early hominids.

Keywords

Mammal paleocommunity Paleoenvironments Early hominids Chad Late Miocene 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the authorities from Chad (Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, Université de N’Djamena, CNAR) and France (MESR, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Poitiers, CNRS, Programme Eclipse, ANR 05-BLAN-0235, and MAE, DCSUR Paris, Projet FSP 2005-54 de la Coopération franco-tchadienne et Ambassade de France à N’Djamena), as well as the Région Poitou-Charente and the French army. We are grateful to the NSF and the RHOI (co-PI’s F.C. Howell and T.D. White). We also thank all of the MPFT participants for the field, technical, and/or administrative work, and the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive criticisms on the manuscript. The experiments performed in this study comply with the current laws of France.

References

  1. Andrews P (1996) Palaeoecology and hominoid palaeoenvironments. Biol Rev 71:257–300. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.1996.tb00749 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews P, Lord JM, Nesbit-Evans EM (1979) Patterns of ecological diversity in fossil and modern mammalian faunas. Biol J Linn Soc 11:177–205. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1979.tb00034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badgley C (1986) Counting individuals in mammalian fossil assemblages from fluvial environments. Palaios 1:328–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrensmeyer AK (1978) Taphonomic and ecologic information from bone weathering. Paleobiology 4:150–162Google Scholar
  5. Behrensmeyer AK (1981) Vertebrate paleoecology in a recent East African ecosystem. In: Gray J, Boncot A, Berry W (eds) Communities of the past. Hutchingston, Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania, pp 591–615Google Scholar
  6. Behrensmeyer AK (1982) Time resolution in fluvial vertebrate assemblages. Paleobiology 8:211–227Google Scholar
  7. Behrensmeyer AK (1991) Terrestrial vertebrate accumulations. In: Allison PA, Briggs DEG (eds) Taphonomy releasing the data locked in the fossil record. Plenum, New York, pp 291–335Google Scholar
  8. Behrensmeyer AK, Hook RW (1992) Paleoenvironmental contexts and taphonomic modes. In: Behrensmeyer AK, Damuth JD, DiMichele WA, Potts R, Sues HD, Wing SL (eds) Terrestrial ecosystems through time. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 15–136Google Scholar
  9. Bishop LC, Hill A (1999) Fossil Suidae from the Baynunah formation, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In: Whybrow PJ, Hill A (eds) Fossil vertebrates of Arabia, with emphasis on the Late Miocene faunas, geology, and palaeoenvironments of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 254–270Google Scholar
  10. Boisserie J-R, Zazzo A, Merceron G, Blondel C, Vignaud P, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Brunet M (2005) Diets of modern and Late Miocene hippopotamids: evidence from carbon isotopic composition and micro-wear of tooth enamel. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 221:153–174. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Ahounta D, Beauvilain A, Blondel C, Bocherens H, Boisserie J-R, de Bonis L, Coppens Y, Dejax J, Denys C, Duringer P, Eisenmann V, Fanone G, Fronty P, Geraads D, Lehmann T, Lihoreau F, Louchart A, Mahamat A, Merceron G, Mouchelin G, Otero O, Pelaez-Campomanes P, Ponce de Leon M, Rage J-C, Sapanet M, Schuster M, Sudre J, Tassy P, Valentin X, Vignaud P, Viriot L, Zazzo A, Zollikofer C (2002) A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418:145–151. doi: 10.1038/nature00879 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, Lieberman DE, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Ponce de Leon M, Zollikofer CPE, Vignaud P (2005) New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad. Nature 434:752–755. doi: 10.1038/nature03392 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cerling TE, Harris JM, MacFadden BJ, Leakey MG, Quade J, Eisenmann V, Ehleringer JR (1997) Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cutler AH, Behrensmeyer AK, Chapman RE (1999) Environmental information in a recent bone assemblage: roles of taphonomic processes and ecological change. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 149:359–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Bonis L, Peigné S, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2005) Hyaenictitherium minimum, a new ictithere (Mammalia, Carnivora, Hyaenidae) from the Late Miocene of Toros-Menalla, Chad. C R Palevol 4:671–679. doi: 10.1016/j.crpv.2005.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dodd JR, Stanton RJ (1990) Paleoecology: concepts and applications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Ducrocq S (1997) The anthracotheriid genus Bothriogenys (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) in Africa and Asia during the Paleogene: phylogenetical and paleobiogeographical relationships. Stuttg Beitr Nat 250:1–44Google Scholar
  18. Eisenmann V, Whybrow PJ (1999) Hipparions from the Late Miocene Baynunah formation, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In: Whybrow PJ, Hill A (eds) Fossil vertebrates of Arabia, with emphasis on the Late Miocene faunas, geology, and palaeoenvironments of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 235–253Google Scholar
  19. Escarguel G, Legendre S, Sigé B (2008) Unearthing deep-time biodiversity changes: the Palaeogene mammalian metacommunity of the Quercy and Limagne area (Massif Central, France). C R Geosci 340:602–614. doi: 10.1016/j.crte.2007.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Estes RD (1992) The behavior guide to African mammals. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  21. Etter W (1999) Community analysis. In: Harper DAT (ed) Numerical palaeobiology. Computer-based modeling and analysis of fossils and their distributions. Wiley, Chichester, pp 285–360Google Scholar
  22. Fara E, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2005) Pliocene large-mammal assemblages from northern Chad: sampling and ecological structure. Naturwissenschaften 92:537–541. doi: 10.1007/s00114-005-0041-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fernandez-Jalvo Y, Denys C, Andrews P, Williams T, Dauphin Y, Humphrey L (1998) Taphonomy and palaeoecology of Olduvai Bed-I (Pleistocene, Tanzania). J Hum Evol 34:137–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Franz-Odendaal TA, Solounias N (2004) Comparative dietary evaluations of an extinct giraffid (Sivatherium hendeyi) (Mammalia, Giraffidae, Sivatheriinae) from Langebaanweg, South Africa (Early Pliocene). Geodiversitas 26:675–685Google Scholar
  25. Gagnon M (1997) Ecological diversity and community ecology in the Fayum sequence (Egypt). J Hum Evol 32:133–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gagnon M, Chew AE (2000) Dietary preferences in extant african Bovidae. J Mammal 81:490–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gentry AW (1970) The Bovidae (Mammalia) of the Fort Ternan fossil fauna. In: Leakey LSB, Savage RJG (eds) Fossil vertebrates of Africa. Academic, London, pp 243–323Google Scholar
  28. Geraads D, Blondel C, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2008) New Hippotragini (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Toros-Menalla (Chad). J Vertebr Paleontol 28:231–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilpin ME, Hanski IA (1991) Metapopulation dynamics: empirical and theoretical investigations. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Hadly EA (1999) Fidelity of terrestrial vertebrate fossils to a modern ecosystem. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 149:389–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haile-Selassie Y (2001) Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 412:178–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haile-Selassie Y, Woldegabriel G, White TD, Bernor RL, Degusta D, Renne PR, Hart WK, Vrba ES, Stanley A, Howell FC (2004) Mio–Pliocene mammals from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Geobios (Lyon) 37:536–552. doi: 10.1016/j.geobios.2003.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamilton WR (1973) The Lower Miocene ruminants of Gebel Zelten, Libya. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist Geol Lond 21:76–150Google Scholar
  34. Harris JM (1991) Family Giraffidae. In: Harris JM (ed) The fossil ungulates: geology, fossil artiodactyle, and palaeoenvironments, Koobi Fora research project. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 86–92Google Scholar
  35. Harris JM, White TD (1979) Evolution of the Plio–Pleistocene African Suidae. Trans Am Philos Soc 69:1–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harris JM, Leakey MG (2003) Lothagam Suidae. In: Leakey MG, Harris JM (eds) Lothagam: the dawn of humanity in eastern Africa. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 485–519Google Scholar
  37. Harris JM, Leakey MG, Cerling TE, Winkler AJ (2003) Early Pliocene tetrapod remains from Kanapoi, Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya. In: Harris JM, Leakey MG (eds) Geology and vertebrate paleontology of the Early Pliocene site of Kanapoï, northern Kenya. Allen, Lawrence, Kansas, pp 39–113Google Scholar
  38. Hendey QB (1981) Palaeoecology of the Late Tertiary fossil occurrences in “E” Quarry, Langebaanweg, South Africa, and a reinterpretation of their geological context. Ann S Afr Mus 81:1–104Google Scholar
  39. Jacques L (2007) Les préférences écologiques (paléorégimes alimentaires, paléohabitats) des grands mammifères herbivores des sites à Hominidés du Miocène supérieur du Nord Tchad. Reconstitution au moyen de l’analyse isotopique en carbone et oxygène du carbonate de l’émail dentaire. PhD thesis, Université de PoitiersGoogle Scholar
  40. Kidwell SM, Flessa KW (1995) The quality of fossil record: populations, species and communities. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 24:433–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kingdon J (1997) the Kingdon field guide to african mammals. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Kovarovic K, Andrews P, Aiello L (2002) The palaeoecology of the Upper Ndolanya Beds at Laetoli, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 43:395–418. doi: 10.1006/jhev.2002.0580 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leakey MG, Feibel CS, Bernor RL, Harris JM, Cerling TE, Stewart KM, Storrs GW, Walker A, Werdelin L, Winkler AJ (1996) Lothagam: a record of faunal change in the Late Miocene of East Africa. J Vertebr Paleontol 16:556–570Google Scholar
  44. Leakey MG, Teaford MF, Ward CV (2003) Cercopithecidae from Lothagam. In: Leakey MG, Harris JM (eds) Lothagam: the dawn of humanity in eastern Africa. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 201–248Google Scholar
  45. Lebatard AE, Bourlés DL, Duringer P, Jolivet M, Braucher R, Carcaillet J, Schuster M, Arnaud N, Monié P, Lihoreau F, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2008) Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio–Pliocene hominids from Chad. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3226–3231. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0708015105 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lehmann T, Vignaud P, Likius A, Brunet M (2005) A new species of Orycteropodidae (Mammalia, Tubulidentata) in the Mio–Pliocene of northern Chad. Zool J Linn Soc-Lond 143:109–131. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lehmann T, Vignaud P, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Brunet M (2006) A sub-complete fossil aardvark (Mammalia, Tubulidentata) from the Upper Miocene of Chad. C R Palevol 5:693–703. doi: 10.1016/j.crpv.2005.12.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leibold MA, Holyoak M, Mouquet N, Amarasekare P, Chase JM, Hoopes MF, Hold RD, Shurin JB, Law R, Tilman D, Loreau M, Gonzalez A (2004) The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecol Lett 7:601–613. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00608.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lihoreau F (2003) Systématique et paléoécologie des Anthracotheriidae (Artiodactyla, Suiformes) du Mio–Pliocene de l’Ancien Monde: implications paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis, Université de PoitiersGoogle Scholar
  50. Lihoreau F, Boisserie J-R, Viriot L, Coppens Y, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Tafforeau P, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2006) Anthracothere dental anatomy reveals a Late Miocene Chado-Libyan bioprovince. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8763–8767. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0603126103 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lopez-Martinez N, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2007) A new lagomorph from the Late Miocene of Chad (Central Africa). Rev Esp Paleontol 22:1–20Google Scholar
  52. Maglio VJ (1973) Origin and evolution of the Elephantidae. Trans Am Philos Soc 63:1–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maridet O, Escarguel G, Costeur L, Mein P, Hugueney M, Legendre S (2007) Small mammal (rodents and lagomorphs) European biogeography from the Late Oligocene to the mid Pliocene. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 16:529–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mein P, Pickford M (2006) Late Miocene micromammals from the Lukeino Formation (6.1 to 5.8 Ma), Kenya. Bull Mens Soc Linn Lyon 75:183–223Google Scholar
  55. Merceron G, Blondel C, Brunet M, Sen S, Solounias N, Viriot L, Heintz E (2004) The Late Miocene paleoenvironment of Afghanistan as inferred from dental microwear in artiodactyls. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 207:143–163. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Oates JF (1994) The natural history of african colobines. In: Davies GA, Oates JF (eds) Colobinae monkeys: their ecology, behaviour and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 75–128Google Scholar
  57. Otero O, Likius A, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2007) A new Claroteid Catfish (Siluriformes) from the Upper Miocene of Toros-Menalla, Chad: Auchenoglanis soye, sp. nov. J Vertebr Paleontol 27:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Otero O, Likius A, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2008) A new Semlikiichthys fish (Teleostei, Perciformes) from the Upper Miocene of Chad: fossil record and palaeobiogeographical implications. Palaeontology 51:917–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Palmqvist P, Arribas A (2001) Taphonomic decoding of the paleobiological information locked in a lower Pleistocene assemblage of large mammals. Paleobiology 27:512–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parker VT (2002) The concept of the ecological community and a clash of perspectives: a reply to Looijen and van Andel. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 5:139–143. doi: 1433-8319/02/5/02-139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Peigné S, de Bonis L, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2005a) The earliest mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (Late Miocene of Chad). Naturwissenschaften 92:287–292. doi: 10.1007/s00114-005-0626-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Peigné S, de Bonis L, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2005b) A new machairodontine (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Late Miocene hominid locality of TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. C R Palevol 4:243–253. doi: 10.1016/j.crpv.2004.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Peigné S, de Bonis L, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2008) Late Miocene Carnivora from Chad: Lutrinae (Mustelidae). Zool J Linn Soc-Lond 152:793–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Peters RH (1983) The ecological implication of body size. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  65. Pickford M (1991) Revision of the Neogene Anthracotheriidae of Africa. Geol Libya 4:1491–1525Google Scholar
  66. Pickford M, Senut B (2001) The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. C R Acad Sci II A 332:145–152Google Scholar
  67. Ramberg L, Hancock P, Lindholm M, Meyer T, Ringrose S, Sliva J, Van As J, VanderPost C (2006) Species diversity of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Aquat Sci 68:310–337. doi: 10.1007/s00027-006-0857-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reed KE (1997) Early hominid evolution and ecological change through the African Plio–Pleistocene. J Hum Evol 32:289–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reynolds SC (2007) Mammalian body size changes and Plio–Pleistocene environmental shifts: implications for understanding hominin evolution in eastern and southern Africa. J Hum Evol 53:528–548. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.01.014 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Robb C (2002) Missing mammals: the effects of simulated fossil preservation biases on the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of hominid sites. Am J Phys Anthropol 34:132Google Scholar
  71. Rodman PS, McHenry HM (1980) Bioenergetics and origins of bipedalism. Am J Phys Anthropol 52:103–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rodriguez J (2004) Stability in Pleistocene Mediterranean mammalian communities. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 207:1–22. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2003.12.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sanders WJ (2007) Taxonomic review of fossil Proboscidea (Mammalia) from Langebaanweg, South Africa. Trans R Soc S Afr 62:1–6Google Scholar
  74. Sawada Y, Pickford M, Senut B, Itaya T, Hyodo M, Miura T, Kashine C, Chujo T, Fujii H (2002) The age of Orrorin tugenensis, an early hominid from the Tugen Hills, Kenya. C R Palevol 1:293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, Mein P, Cheboi K, Coppens Y (2001) First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C R Acad Sci II A 332:137–144Google Scholar
  76. Shipman P, Harris JM (1988) Habitat preference and paleoecology of Australopithecus boisei in Eastern Africa. In: Grine FE (ed) The evolutionary history of the ‘‘robust’’ Australopithecines. Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp 343–381Google Scholar
  77. Shotwell JA (1955) An approach to the paleoecology of mammals. Ecol 36:327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smart C (1976) The Lothagam 1 fauna: its phylogenetic, ecological, and biogeographic significance. In: Coppens Y, Howell FC, Isaac GL (eds) Earliest man and environments in the Lake Rudolf Basin. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 361–369Google Scholar
  79. Sockol MD, Raichlen DA, Pontzer H (2007) Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12265–12269. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0703267104 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Soligo C, Andrews P (2005) Taphonomic bias, taxonomic bias and historical non-equivalence of faunal structure in early hominin localities. J Hum Evol 49:206–229. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.03.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Solounias N, Dawson-Saunders B (1988) Dietary adaptation and paleoecology of the late Miocene ruminants from Pikermi and Samos in Greece. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 65:149–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vignaud P, Duringer P, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Blondel C, Boisserie J-R, de Bonis L, Eisenmann V, Etienne M-E, Geraads D, Guy F, Lehmann T, Lihoreau F, Lopez-Martinez N, Mourer-Chauviré C, Otero O, Rage J-C, Schuster M, Viriot L, Zazzo A, Brunet M (2002) Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nat 418:152–155. doi: 10.1038/nature00880 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Voorhies MR (1969) Taphonomy and population dynamics of an early Pliocene vertebrate fauna, Knox County, Nebraska. Univ Wyo Contrib Geol, Spec Pap 1:1–69Google Scholar
  84. Vrba ES (1980) The significance of bovid remains as indicators of environment and predation patterns. In: Behrensmeyer AK, Hill AP (eds) Fossils in the making. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 247–272Google Scholar
  85. Wheeler PE (1991a) The influence of bipedalism on the energy and water budgets of early hominids. J Hum Evol 21:117–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wheeler PE (1991b) The thermoregulatory advantages of hominid bipedalism in open equatorial environments: the contribution of increased convective heat loss and cutaneous evaporite cooling. J Hum Evol 21:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilson DS (1992) Complex interactions in metacommunities, with implications for biodiversity and higher levels of selection. Ecol 73:1984–2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. WoldeGabriel G, White TD, Suwa G, Renne P, de Heinzelin J, Hart WK, Heiken G (1994) Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371:330–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wrangham RW (2005) The delta hypothesis: Hominoid ecology and Hominin origins. In: Lieberman DE, Smith RJ, Kelley J (eds) Interpreting the past: essays on human, primate, and mammal evolution. Brill Academic, Boston, Leiden, pp 231–242Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soizic Le Fur
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Fara
    • 2
  • Hassane Taïsso Mackaye
    • 3
  • Patrick Vignaud
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michel Brunet
    • 4
  1. 1.Institut de Paléoprimatologie et Paléontologie Humaine, Evolution et Paléoenvironnements, IPHEP, UMR 6046/CNRS, UFR SFAUniversité de PoitiersPoitiers cedexFrance
  2. 2.BiogéosciencesUniversité de Bourgogne/CNRS, UMR 5561DijonFrance
  3. 3.Département de PaléontologieUniversité de N’DjamenaN’DjamenaChad
  4. 4.Collège de FranceChaire de Paléontologie HumaineParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations