Thioredoxins in bacteria: functions in oxidative stress response and regulation of thioredoxin genes
- 1.5k Downloads
Thioredoxins fulfill a number of different important cellular functions in all living organisms. In bacteria, thioredoxin genes are often regulated by external factors. In turn, thioredoxins influence the expression of many other genes. The multiple and important functions of thioredoxins in cells necessitate to appropriately adjust their level. This review outlines different strategies that have evolved for the regulation of bacterial thioredoxin genes. It also summarizes effects of thioredoxins on gene regulation and presents a recent model for a redox-dependent gene regulation that is mediated by thioredoxins.
KeywordsParaquat Synechocystis Oxidative Stress Response Diamide OxyR
The work from the authors was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Kl563/16), the Fonds der chemischen Industrie, the BMBF, and the DAAD.
- Gallardo-Madueno R, Leal JF, Dorado G, Holmgren, Lopez-Barea J, Pueyo C (1998) In vivo transcription of nrdAB operon and of grxA and fpg genes is triggered in Escherichia coli lacking both thioredoxin and glutaredoxin 1 or thioredoxin and glutathione, respectively. J Biol Chem 273:18382–18388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holmgren A (1995a) Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. J Biol Chem 3:233–316Google Scholar
- Lim CJ, Daws T, Gerami-Nejad M, Fuchs JA (2000) Growth-phase regulation of the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene. Biochim Biophys Acta 25:1–6Google Scholar
- Sies H (1985) Oxidative stress. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Smits WK, Dubois JY, Bron S, van Dijl JM, Kuipers OP (2005) Tricksy business: transcriptome analysis reveals the involvement of thioredoxin A in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress, sulfur metabolism, and cellular differentiation in Bacillus subtilis. j Bacteriol 187:3921–3930CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Storz G, Zheng M (2000) Oxidative stress. In: Bacterial stress responses. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 47–59Google Scholar
- Wieles B, Ottenhoff TH, Steenwijk TM, Franken KL, de Vries RR, Langermans JA (1997) Increased intracellular survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis containing the Mycobacterium leprae thioredoxin–thioredoxin reductase gene. Infect Immunol 65:2537–2541Google Scholar