, 93:216

Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests

Original Article


Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73–89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125–133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to “classical” AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category.

Supplementary material

114_2005_81_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (56 kb)
(PDF 57 kb)
114_2005_81_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (55 kb)
(PDF 56 kb)
114_2005_81_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (89 kb)
(PDF 91 kb)
114_2005_81_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (95 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Computer SciencesJohann Wolfgang Goethe-UniversityFrankfurtGermany

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