Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 92, Issue 2, pp 65–68

Behavioral evidence for host fidelity among populations of the parasitic wasp, Diachasma alloeum (Muesebeck)

Short Communication

Abstract

The concept of “host fidelity,” where host-specific mating occurs in close proximity to the oviposition site and location of larval development, is thought to impart a pre-mating isolation mechanism for sympatric speciation (sensu members of the genus Rhagoletis). The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, and the blueberry maggot fly, R. mendax, are morphologically similar sibling species thought to have speciated in sympatry by divergence of host plant association. Both of these fly species are attacked by the specialist braconid parasitoid, Diachasma alloeum. The current study demonstrates that both male and female D. alloeum exhibit a behavioral preference for the odor of the fruit of their larval Rhagoletis host species. Specifically, those D. alloeum emerging from puparia of R. pomonella are preferentially attracted to hawthorn fruit and those emerging from puparia of R. mendax are preferentially attracted to blueberry fruit. However, male D. alloeum reared from either R. pomonella or R. mendax were equally attracted to females originating from both Rhagoletis species. We suggest that the data herein present evidence for “host fidelity,” where populations of D. alloeum exhibit a greater tendency to mate and reproduce among the host plants of their preferred Rhagoletis hosts. Furthermore, host fidelity may have resulted in the evolution of distinct host races of D. alloeum tracking the speciation of their larval Rhagoletis prey.

References

  1. Barlow ND, Beggs JR, Moller H (1998) Spread of the wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum following its release in New Zealand. N Z J Ecol 22:205–208Google Scholar
  2. Berlocher SH (2000) Radiation and divergence in the Rhagoletis pomonella species group: inferences from allozymes. Evolution 54:543–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Boush GM, Baerwald RJ (1967) Courtship behavior and evidence of a sex pheromone in the apple maggot parasite Opius alloeus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 60:865–866Google Scholar
  4. Bush GL (1966) The taxonomy, cytology, and evolution of the genus Rhagoletis in North America (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bull Mus Comp Zool 134:431–562Google Scholar
  5. Feder JL, Opp S, Wlazlo B, Reynolds K, Go W, Spisak S (1994) Host fidelity is an effective pre-mating barrier between sympatric races of the apple maggot fly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:7990–7994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Feder JL, Roethele J, Wlazlo B, Berlocher SH (1997) Selective maintenance of allozyme differences between sympatric host races of the apple maggot fly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:11417–11421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Feder JL (1998) The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pommonella: flies in the face of conventional wisdom? In: Howard DJ, Berlocher SH (eds) Endless forms: species and speciation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 130–144Google Scholar
  8. Filchak KE, Roethele JB, Feder JL (2000) Natural selection and sympatric divergence in the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella. Nature 407:739–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Glas PCG, Vet LEM (1983) Host-habitat location and host location by Diachasma alloeum Muesebeck (Hym.; Broconidae), a parasitoid of Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Dipt.; Tephritidae). Neth J Zool 33:41–54Google Scholar
  10. Liburd OE, Finn EM (2003) Effect of overwintering conditions on the emergence of Diachasma alloeum reared from the puparia of blueberry maggot. In: VanDriesche RG (ed) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, January 14–18, 2002. USDA, Forest Service Honolulu, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  11. Liburd OE, Finn EM, Pettit KL, Wise JC (2003) Response of blueberry maggot fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to imidacloprid-treated spheres and selected insecticides. Can Entomol 135:427–438Google Scholar
  12. Linn C, Feder JL, Nojima S, Dambroski HR, Berlocher SH, Roelofs W (2003) Fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host race formation in Rhagoletis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:11490–11493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Nojima S, Linn CE, Zhang A, Morris B, Roelofs WL (2003a) Identification of host fruit volatiles from hawthorn (Craeteagus spp.) attractive to hawthorn-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies. J Chem Ecol 29:321–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Nojima S, Linn CE, Roelofs WL (2003b) Identification of host fruit volatiles from flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) attractive to dogwood-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies. J Chem Ecol 29:2347–2357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. SAS Institute (2000) SAS/STAT user’s guide, vol 1, 4th edn. version 6. SAS Institute, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  16. Stelinski LL, Pelz KS, Liburd OE (2004) Field observations quantifying attraction of the parasitic wasp, Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to blueberry fruit infested by the blueberry maggot fly, Rhagoletis mendax (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla Entomol 87:124–129Google Scholar
  17. Van Nouhuys S, Hanski I (2002) Colonization rates and distances of a host butterfly and two specific parasitoids in a fragmented landscape. J Anim Ecol 71:639–650Google Scholar
  18. Vet LEM (1983) Host habitat location through olfactory cues by Leptopilina clavipes (Hartig) (Hym: Eucoilidae) a parasitoid of fungovorous Drosophila: the influence of conditioning. Neth J Zool 33:225–248Google Scholar
  19. Wharton RA, Marsh PM (1978) New world Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on Tephritidae (Diptera). J Wash Acad Sci 68:147–167Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entomology, Center for Integrated Plant SystemsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Entomology & Nematology DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Present address: 205 Center for Integrated Plant SystemsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations