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Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 91, Issue 6, pp 277–290 | Cite as

The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics

Review

Abstract

With more than 3,000 species, the fish family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. Cichlids occur in southern and central America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. The hotspot of their biodiversity is East Africa, where they form adaptive radiations composed of hundreds of endemic species in several lakes of various sizes and ages. The unparalleled species richness of East African cichlids has been something of a conundrum for evolutionary biologists and ecologists, since it has been in doubt whether these hundreds of species arose by allopatric speciation or whether it is necessary to invoke somewhat less traditional models of speciation, such as micro-allopatric, peripatric, or even sympatric speciation or evolution through sexual selection mediated by female choice. Ernst Mayr’s analyses of these evolutionary uniquely diverse species assemblages have contributed to a more direct approach to this problem and have led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes that caused the formation of these huge groups of species. We review here recent molecular data on population differentiation and phylogenetics, which have helped to unravel, to some extent, the patterns and processes that led to the formation and ecological maintenance of cichlid species flocks. It is becoming apparent that sexually selected traits do play an important role in speciation in micro-allopatric or even sympatric settings. Species richness seems to be roughly correlated with the surface area, but not the age, of the lakes. We observe that the oldest lineages of a species flock of cichlids are often less species-rich and live in the open water or deepwater habitats. While the species flocks of the Lake Malawai and the Lake Victoria areas were shown to be monophyletic, the cichlid assemblage of Lake Tanganyika seems to consist of several independent species flocks. Cichlids emerge as an evolutionary model system in which many fundamental questions in evolution and ecology can be tested successfully, yet for other fish species flocks the relative importance of alternative mechanisms of speciation is likely to differ from that in cichlid fish.

Keywords

Sexual Selection Cichlid Fish Allopatric Speciation Cichlid Species Ancient Lineage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to dedicate this article to Ernst Mayr, in great admiration and friendship and with our best wishes for his 100th birthday. We are grateful to M. Barluenga and the reviewers for valuable comments. We would also like to acknowledge the financial support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Landesstiftung Baden-Württemberg, and the Center for Junior Research Fellows at the University of Konstanz.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Fachbereich BiologieUniversität KonstanzKonstanzGermany

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