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Sicherheit und Risiken vegetarischer und veganer Ernährung in Schwangerschaft, Stillzeit und den ersten Lebensjahren

Stellungnahme der Ernährungskommission der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde zu Sicherheit und Risiken bei unterschiedlichen Formen vegetarischer und veganer Ernährung der Mutter in Schwangerschaft und Stillzeit und bei Säuglingen und Kleinkindern
  • Ernährungskommission der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde
  • R. Plank
Konsensuspapiere
  • 7 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Eine ausgewogene ovolaktovegetarische Ernährung kann während der Schwangerschaft, Stillzeit sowie des Säuglings- und Kleinkindalters eine gute Alternative zur omnivoren Lebensweise bedeuten und eine adäquate Versorgung von Mutter und Kind gewährleisten. Je restriktiver die Art des Vegetarismus jedoch ist, umso höher ist das Risiko einer Unterversorgung mit Nährstoffen. Bei einer rein pflanzlichen Ernährung ist der kritischste Nährstoff Vitamin B12. Insbesondere für gestillte Säuglinge von inadäquat supplementierten Frauen besteht daher die Gefahr des Auftretens von schweren, irreversiblen Vitamin-B12-Mangel-Symptomen. Es existiert kein internationaler Konsens hinsichtlich der Vitamin-B12-Supplementierung bei veganer Ernährung. Deshalb kann die Österreichische Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde (ÖGKJ) derzeit keine Empfehlung für die vegane Ernährung in Schwangerschaft, Stillzeit und den ersten Lebensjahren aussprechen. Weitere potenziell kritische Nährstoffe in der vegetarischen Ernährung sind Proteine, Omega-3-Fettsäuren, Vitamin D, Mineralstoffe und Spurenelemente wie Kalzium, Eisen, Zink und Jod. Aufgrund des wachsenden Interesses an vegetarischen Ernährungsformen wird man in der kinderärztlichen Tätigkeit mit dem Wunsch konfrontiert, Kinder vegetarisch oder vegan zu ernähren. Mit diesem Positionspapier möchte die Ernährungskommission der ÖGKJ den behandelnden Kinder- und Hausärzten einen Überblick über die erforderlichen Nährstoffe bei vegetarischen Ernährungsformen von Mutter und Kind bieten. Ziel ist es, eine wohlwollende Beratung der Eltern zur Vermeidung möglicher Mangelzustände durchführen zu können und die Umsetzung vegetarischer Ernährungsformen basierend auf dem aktuellen Erkenntnisstand so sicher wie möglich zu gestalten. Im Falle einer rein veganen Ernährung ist die ärztliche und diätologische Begleitung unerlässlich.

Schlüsselwörter

Vegetarismus Kritische Nährstoffe Vitamin-B-12-Mangel Omega-3-Fettsäuren Mikronährstoffe 

Safety and risks of vegetarian and vegan nutrition during pregnancy, lactation and the first years of life

Statement by the Nutrition Committee of the Austrian Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine on the safety and risks of various forms of vegetarian and vegan nutrition of the mother during pregnancy and lactation and in infants and toddlers

Abstract

A well-balanced ovo-lacto vegetarian diet can be a good alternative to the omnivorous lifestyle, also for pregnant and lactating women as well as infants and toddlers, and can provide adequate nutrients for mother and child. The more restrictive the vegetarianism becomes, the higher is the risk of nutrient deficiencies. In a vegan diet the most critical nutrient with risk for deficiency is vitamin B12. There is a risk of severe, irreversible vitamin B12 deficiency especially in breastfed infants in case of inadequate supplementation of women. There is no international consensus on vitamin B12 supplementation in vegan diets. Therefore, the Committee of Nutrition of the Austrian Society for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine is currently unable to recommend a vegan diet during pregnancy, lactation and the first years of life. Other potentially critical nutrients include protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and minerals such as calcium, iron, zinc and iodine. Due to the growing interest in vegetarian diets, one is frequently confronted with parents desiring to start their children on a vegetarian or vegan diet. With this position paper the Committee of Nutrition of the Austrian Society for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine wants to provide an overview of the critical nutrients that have to be taken into account in vegetarian diets of mother and child. The key objective is to bear potential deficiencies in mind and allow an implementation of vegetarian diets in a way that is as safe and knowledgeable as possible. In case of a vegan diet, medical and dietary support is essential.

Keywords

Vegetarianism Critical nutrients Vitamin-b-12-deficiency Omega-3-fatty acids Micronutrients 

Notes

Danksagung

Wir bedanken uns bei Dr. Simon Straub für seine wertvollen Ergänzungen.

Mitglieder der Ernährungskommission der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde (ÖGKJ)

Renate Plank, Susanne Greber-Platzer, Nadja Haiden (Vorsitzende), Almuth Christine Hauer, Roland Lanzersdorfer, Beate Pietschnig, Wolfgang Sperl, Daniel Weghuber, Karl Zwiauer

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

Die Österreichische Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde und R. Plank geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernährungskommission der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde
  • R. Plank
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung für Kinder- und JugendheilkundeKrankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder EisenstadtEisenstadtÖsterreich

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