Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde

, Volume 158, Issue 1, pp 35–41 | Cite as

Alkoholmissbrauch und -abhängigkeit im Kindes- und Jugendalter

Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Erhöhter Alkoholkonsum ist mit einer Vielzahl körperlicher und psychischer Störungen assoziiert und beinhaltet v. a. bei Kindern und Jugendlichen große Risiken für deren weitere Entwicklung. Diese sind aufgrund der noch nicht abgeschlossenen Hirnreifung besonders gefährdet. Deutschland gilt als Hochkonsumland mit einem weitgehend liberalen Umgang mit Alkohol; etwa 10 Mio. Personen zeigen ein zumindest problematisches Konsumverhalten. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit kam in vergangenen Jahren dem Umgang mit Alkohol bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu. Alkohol ist die am weitesten verbreitete psychoaktive Substanz, auch bei unter 16-Jährigen. Hoher Alkoholkonsum im Kindes- und Jugendalter ist mit einem hohen Risiko der Abhängigkeitsentwicklung sowie körperlicher, psychischer und psychosozialer Folgeschäden verbunden. Die Rate von Suiziden bzw. Suizidversuchen ist bei Jugendlichen mit erhöhtem Alkoholkonsum um das 3- bis 4-Fache erhöht. Aufgrund vielfältiger, möglicherweise persistierender Alkoholeffekte auf die Hirnentwicklung kommt primärpräventiven Maßnahmen entscheidende Bedeutung zu, um Verantwortungsbewusstsein im Umgang mit Alkohol zu vermitteln.

Schlüsselwörter

Abhängigkeit Alkoholmissbrauch Rauschtrinken Neurobiologie Sucht 

Alcohol use and alcoholism in childhood and adolescence

Abstract

Chronic alcohol use is associated with a wide range of somatic and psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairments. Due to an increased vulnerability during brain maturation, children and adolescents are at high risk, in particular regarding the development of neurobiological alterations. Alcohol use is common among young people in Germany, as are problems caused by risky drinking habits such as binge drinking behaviour. Suicide rates and the frequency of suicide attempts by young people in connection with alcohol abuse have more than tripled; therefore, alcohol use among children and adolescents has become a major public health issue. Due to potentially permanent alterations in development, effective preventive strategies are mandatory.

Keywords

Alcoholism Alcohol abuse Binge drinking Neurobiology Addiction 

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchenDeutschland

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