Analysis of the genetic diversity of Helicobacter pylori: the tale of two genomes
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Infection with Helicobacter pylori has been linked to numerous severe gastroduodenal diseases including peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Several techniques have been used to measure the genetic heterogeneity of H. pylori at several different levels and to determine whether there is any correlation with severity of disease. The availability of two completed genome sequences from unrelated strains (J99 and 26695) has allowed an analysis of the level of diversity from a large-scale yet detailed perspective. Although the two chromosomes are organized differently in a limited number of discrete regions, the genome size and gene order of these two "high-virulence" (cagA + and vacA +) H. pylori isolates was found to be highly similar. The regions of organizational difference are associated with insertion sequences, DNA restriction/modification genes, repeat sequences, or a combination of the above. A significant level of variation at the nucleotide level is seen across the genome, providing an explanation for why the nucleotide-based typing techniques have such high discriminatory power among independent H. pylori isolates. This nucleotide variation together with the organizational rearrangements appears to have provided an over-estimation of the gene order diversity of H. pylori as assessed by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Functional assignments are assigned to approximately only 60% of the gene products in each strain, with one-half of the remaining gene products of unknown function having homologues in other bacteria, while the remainder appear to be H. pylori-specific. Between 6% and 7% of the coding capacity of each strain are genes that are absent from the other strain, with almost one-half of these strain-specific genes located in a single hypervariable region called the plasticity zone. The majority of the strain-specific genes in each strain are also H. pylori-specific, with no homologues being identified in the public databases. Significantly, over one-half of the functionally assigned strain-specific genes in both H. pylori J99 and 26695 encode DNA restriction/modification enzymes. Analysis of the level of conservation between orthologues from the two strains indicates that the H. pylori specific genes have a lower level of conservation than those orthologues to which a putative function can be assigned. The plasticity zone represents one of several regions across each genome that is comprised of lower (G+C)% content DNA, some of which has been detected in self-replicating plasmids, suggesting that both horizontal transfer from other species and plasmid integration are responsible for the strain-specific diversity at this locus. These analyses have yielded results with important implications for understanding the genetic diversity of H. pylori and its associated diseases, and imply a need to reassess the respective roles of bacterial and host factors in H. pylori associated diseases.
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