Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 71–95 | Cite as

The vital role of ATP citrate lyase in chronic diseases

  • Amrita Devi Khwairakpam
  • Kishore Banik
  • Sosmitha Girisa
  • Bano Shabnam
  • Mehdi Shakibaei
  • Lu Fan
  • Frank Arfuso
  • Javadi Monisha
  • Hong Wang
  • Xinliang Mao
  • Gautam SethiEmail author
  • Ajaikumar B. KunnumakkaraEmail author


Chronic or non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide; they usually result in long-term illnesses and demand long-term care. Despite advances in molecular therapeutics, specific biomarkers and targets for the treatment of these diseases are required. The dysregulation of de novo lipogenesis has been found to play an essential role in cell metabolism and is associated with the development and progression of many chronic diseases; this confirms the link between obesity and various chronic diseases. The main enzyme in this pathway—ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), a lipogenic enzyme—catalyzes the critical reaction linking cellular glucose catabolism and lipogenesis. Increasing lines of evidence suggest that the modulation of ACLY expression correlates with the development and progressions of various chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, inflammation, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that the inhibition of ACLY activity modulates the glycolysis and lipogenesis processes and stimulates normal physiological functions. This comprehensive review aimed to critically evaluate the role of ACLY in the development and progression of different diseases and the effects of its downregulation in the prevention and treatment of these diseases.


Chronic diseases ATP citrate lyase Lipogenic enzyme Fatty acid biosynthesis 



6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase




acetyl-CoA carboxylase




acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2






5′ AMP-activated protein kinase


ataxia telangiectasia mutated


branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase




caffeic acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid)




CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologs protein




carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A


citrate synthase


cucurbitacin B




enolase 1




fatty acyl-CoA elongase 6


PEA3 transcription factor


fatty acid desaturase


fatty acid β-oxidation


fatty acid synthase


fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase


fructose-1, 6-biophosphatase




glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase




glycogen synthase


glucose-stimulated insulin secretion


hypoxia-inducible factor-1α


hepatocellular carcinoma










insulin receptor kinase


lactate dehydrogenase A


liver X receptor-s


lipoic acid


mitogen-activated protein kinase




malic enzyme




nitric oxide




oxoglutarate dehydrogenase


oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate


pyruvate citrate


pyruvate dehydrogenase


6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase


pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta


phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase




prostaglandin E2


protein histidine phosphatase




pyruvate kinase


peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma


polyunsaturated fatty acid




retinol-binding protein 1


receptor-interacting protein kinase-3


reactive oxygen species


succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase


stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1




sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1


sterol regulatory element-binding factor 2




transcription factor 4




Trigonella foenum graecum Linn


ubiquitin-specific peptidase 13



This work was supported by the project (No. BT/BI/14/042/2017) by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India, awarded to Dr. Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati, Assam, India. Kishore Banik acknowledges the UGC, New Delhi, India, for the fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cancer Biology Laboratory & DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences & BioengineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  2. 2.Musculoskeletal Research Group and Tumour Biology, Chair of Vegetative Anatomy, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of MedicineLudwig-Maximilian-University, MunichMunichGermany
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Stem Cell and Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research InstituteCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  5. 5.Institute of Clinical PharmacologyGuangzhou University of Chinese MedicineGuangzhouChina
  6. 6.Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical SciencesSoochow UniversitySuzhouChina

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