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Caloric restriction maintains stem cells through niche and regulates stem cell aging

  • Nagarajan Maharajan
  • Karthikeyan Vijayakumar
  • Chul Ho Jang
  • Goang-Won ChoEmail author
Review
  • 128 Downloads

Abstract

The functional loss of adult stem cells is a major cause of aging and age-related diseases. Changes in the stem cell niche, increased energy metabolic rate, and accumulation of cell damage severely affect the function and regenerative capacity of stem cells. Reducing the cellular damage and maintaining a pristine stem cell niche by regulating the energy metabolic pathways could be ideal for the proper functioning of stem cells and tissue homeostasis. Numerous studies point out that caloric restriction (CR) has beneficiary effects on stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration. Recent researches indicate the preventive nature of calorie restriction in stem cells by modulating the stem cell niche through the reduction of energy metabolism and eventually decrease stem cell damage. In this review, we have focused on the general stimuli of stem cell aging, particularly the energy metabolism as an intrinsic influence and stem cell niche as an extrinsic influence in different adult stem cells. Further, we discussed the mechanism behind CR in different adult stem cells and their niche. Finally, we conclude on how CR can enhance the stem cell function and tissue homeostasis through the stem cells niche.

Keywords

Stem cells Stem cell niche Caloric restriction Longevity Aging Energy metabolism 

Abbreviations

4E-BP1

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1

AKT

Protein kinase B

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

AMPK

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

Atg7

Autophagy-related gene 7

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

Bst1

Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1

Ca2+

Calcium

cADPR

Cyclic ADP ribose

CaMKK

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1

CaMKK-β

Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta

CR

Caloric restriction

CRM

Caloric restriction mimetics

dPGC1/spargel

Drosophila PGC-1 homolog

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FOXO3A

Forkhead box protein O3

FOXO

Forkhead box O

GCN2

Nonderepressible 2

Glu

Glucose

GSCs

Germline stem cells

GSH

Glutathione

hBM-MSCs

Human bone marrow MSCs

HepG2

Hepatoma-derived cell line

HGPS

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

HIF 1α

Hypoxic-inducible factor 1 α

HSCs

Hematopoietic stem cells

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor-1

IIS

Insulin and IGF-1 signaling

ISCs

Intestinal stem cells

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

MtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

mTORC1

Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

MuSCs

Muscle stem cells/satellite stem cells

NAC

N-acetylcysteine

Nampt

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase

NF-kB

Nuclear factor-kappa B

NMN

Nicotinamide mononucleotide

NSCs

Neural stem cells

OXPHOS

Oxidative phosphorylation

PDKs

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases

PGC1

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

S6K1

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1

SIRT1

Sirtuin 1

SIRT3

Sirtuin 3

TA

Transit-amplifying cells

TSC1-TSC2

Tuberous sclerosis 1 and 2 complex

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by research fund from Chosun University (2019).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, College of Natural SciencesChosun UniversityDong-guKorea
  2. 2.Department of Life Science, BK21-Plus Research Team for Bioactive Control TechnologyChosun UniversityGwangjuKorea
  3. 3.Department of OtolaryngologyChonnam National University Medical SchoolGwangjuKorea

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