Approaches to therapeutic angiogenesis for ischemic heart disease

  • Takerra Johnson
  • Lina Zhao
  • Gygeria Manuel
  • Herman Taylor
  • Dong Liu


Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is caused by the narrowing of arteries that work to provide blood, nutrients, and oxygen to the myocardial tissue. The worldwide epidemic of IHD urgently requires innovative treatments despite the significant advances in medical, interventional, and surgical therapies for this disease. Angiogenesis is a physiological and pathophysiological process that initiates vascular growth from pre-existing blood vessels in response to a lack of oxygen. This process occurs naturally over time and has encouraged researchers and clinicians to investigate the outcomes of accelerating or enhancing this angiogenic response as an alternative IHD therapy. Therapeutic angiogenesis has been shown to revascularize ischemic heart tissue, reduce the progression of tissue infarction, and evade the need for invasive surgical procedures or tissue/organ transplants. Several approaches, including the use of proteins, genes, stem/progenitor cells, and various combinations, have been employed to promote angiogenesis. While clinical trials for these approaches are ongoing, microvesicles and exosomes have recently been investigated as a cell-free approach to stimulate angiogenesis and may circumvent limitations of using viable cells. This review summarizes the approaches to accomplish therapeutic angiogenesis for IHD by highlighting the advances and challenges that addresses the applicability of a potential pro-angiogenic medicine.


Angiogenesis Ischemic heart disease Myocardial infarction 



Acute myocardial infarction


Adipose-derived stem cell


Bone marrow


Coronary artery bypass grafting


Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina Classification


Endothelial cells


End diastolic volume


Epithelial to mesenchymal transition


Fibroblast growth factor


Endothelial progenitor cell


Extracellular vesicles


Hypoxia inducible factor-1α


Intracoronary infusion


Schemic heart disease


Intramyocardial injection


Induced pluripotent stem cell


Induced vascular progenitor cell


Left ventricle ejection fraction


Left ventricle end systolic volume


Mesenchymal stem cells




Percutaneous injection


Placental-derived growth factor


Platelet-derived growth factor


Stromal cell-derived factor 1


tail vein


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Morehouse School of MedicineCardiovascular Research InstituteAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistrySpelman CollegeAtlantaUSA

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