Evasion of Toll-like receptor 2 activation by staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial for our host defense against microbial infections. TLR2 is especially important to fight bacterial infections, as it specifically recognizes bacterial lipoproteins of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative origin. Present on a variety of immune cells, TLR2 is critical for host protection against several bacterial infections, including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. This major human pathogen causes increasing health care problems due to its increased resistance to antibiotics. S. aureus secretes a wide variety of proteins that inhibit innate immune responses. Recently, several staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) have been described to mediate immune evasive properties. Here, we describe that SSL3 specifically binds and inhibits TLR2 activation on human and murine neutrophils and monocytes. Through binding of the extracellular TLR2 domain, SSL3 inhibits IL-8 production by HEK cells expressing TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 dimers, stimulated with their specific ligands. The SSL3–TLR2 interaction is partially glycan dependent as binding of SSL3 to TLR2 is affected upon removal of sialic acid residues. Moreover, the SSL3(R308A) mutant lacking glycan-binding properties shows lower TLR2 inhibition. An SSL3 mutant, lacking the N-terminal 126 amino acids, still retains full TLR2 inhibiting activity. Of other SSLs tested, only SSL4, which shares the highest homology with SSL3, blocks TLR2 activation. SSL3 is the first-described bacterial protein that blocks TLR2 activation through direct extracellular interaction with the receptor. This unique function of SSL3 adds to the arsenal of immune evasive molecules that S. aureus can employ to subvert both innate and adaptive immunity.
KeywordsToll-like receptor 2 TLR2 antagonist Staphylococcus aureus Innate immunity Immune evasion Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 SSL3
These studies were performed under the Immuno Valley ALTANT program funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature, and Food Quality and, later on, Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture, and Innovation. The authors thank Dr. Mark de Been for his help in constructing the phylogenetic trees.
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