Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 86, Issue 12, pp 1301–1314 | Cite as

Adult stem cells and their trans-differentiation potential—perspectives and therapeutic applications

  • Sabine Hombach-Klonisch
  • Soumya Panigrahi
  • Iran Rashedi
  • Anja Seifert
  • Esteban Alberti
  • Paola Pocar
  • Maciej Kurpisz
  • Klaus Schulze-Osthoff
  • Andrzej Mackiewicz
  • Marek Los
Review

Abstract

Stem cells are self-renewing multipotent progenitors with the broadest developmental potential in a given tissue at a given time. Normal stem cells in the adult organism are responsible for renewal and repair of aged or damaged tissue. Adult stem cells are present in virtually all tissues and during most stages of development. In this review, we introduce the reader to the basic information about the field. We describe selected stem cell isolation techniques and stem cell markers for various stem cell populations. These include makers for endothelial progenitor cells (CD146/MCAM/MUC18/S-endo-1, CD34, CD133/prominin, Tie-2, Flk1/KD/VEGFR2), hematopoietic stem cells (CD34, CD117/c-Kit, Sca1), mesenchymal stem cells (CD146/MCAM/MUC18/S-endo-1, STRO-1, Thy-1), neural stem cells (CD133/prominin, nestin, NCAM), mammary stem cells (CD24, CD29, Sca1), and intestinal stem cells (NCAM, CD34, Thy-1, CD117/c-Kit, Flt-3). Separate section provides a concise summary of recent clinical trials involving stem cells directed towards improvement of a damaged myocardium. In the last part of the review, we reflect on the field and on future developments.

Keywords

Autoimmune disease G-CSF Graft vs. host reaction Stem/progenitor cell Trans-differentiation 

Abbreviations

AGM

aorta–gonad–mesonephros

BCRP1

breast cancer resistance protein1

BM

bone marrow

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

CNS

central nervous system

CSC

cardiac stem cell

ESC

embryonic stem cells

Flk1

fetal liver kinase-1

G-CSF

granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

GM-CSF

granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

HSC

hematopoietic stem cell

LVAD

left ventricular assist device

LVEF

left ventricular ejection fraction

MAPC

multipotent adult progenitor cells

MRF

myogenic regulatory factor

MSC

mesenchymal stromal cell

NCAM

neural cell adhesion molecule

NSC

neuronal stem cells

NYHA

New York Heart Association

PB

peripheral blood

Sca1

stem cell antigen 1

SP

side population

UC

umbilical cord

VEGFR2

vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors (SHK, ML) would like to thank the Manitoba Health Research Council (MHRC) for their generous support. We apologize to those authors whose research was not cited in this review due to the reference number limitations.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Hombach-Klonisch
    • 1
  • Soumya Panigrahi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Iran Rashedi
    • 3
    • 4
  • Anja Seifert
    • 1
  • Esteban Alberti
    • 5
  • Paola Pocar
    • 6
  • Maciej Kurpisz
    • 7
  • Klaus Schulze-Osthoff
    • 8
  • Andrzej Mackiewicz
    • 9
  • Marek Los
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Human Anatomy and Cell ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, CancerCare ManitobaUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and Medical GeneticsUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  5. 5.Department of Neurobiology, International Center of Neurological RestorationCIRENHavanaCuba
  6. 6.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  7. 7.Institute of Human GeneticsPolish Academy of SciencePoznanPoland
  8. 8.Institute of Molecular MedicineUniversity of DuesseldorfDuesseldorfGermany
  9. 9.Department of Cancer ImmunologyPoznan University of Medical Sciences, and Great-Poland Cancer CenterPoznanPoland
  10. 10.BioApplications EnterprisesWinnipegCanada

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