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Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 82, Issue 9, pp 565–578 | Cite as

Heart mitochondria signaling pathways: appraisal of an emerging field

  • José Marín-GarcíaEmail author
  • Michael J. Goldenthal
Review

Abstract

The contribution that mitochondria make to cardiac function extends well beyond their critical bioenergetic role as a supplier of ATP. The organelle plays an integral part in the regulatory and signaling events that occur in response to physiological stresses, including but not limited to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, hypoxia, oxidative stress, and hormonal and cytokine stimuli. Research on both intact cardiac muscle tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes has just begun to probe the nature and the extent of mitochondrial involvement in interorganelle communication, hypertropic growth, and cell death. This review covers particular aspects of the newly emerging field of mitochondrial medicine offering a critical guide in the assessment of mitochondrial participation at the molecular and biochemical levels in the multiple and interrelated signaling pathways, gauging the effect that mitochondria have as a receiver, integrator, and transmitter of signals on cardiac phenotype. We also discuss future directions that may impact on the treatment of cardiac diseases.

Keywords

Cardioprotection Mitochondria Signal transduction 

Abbreviations

ANT

Adenine nucleotide translocator

CoA

Coenzyme A

COX

Cytochrome c oxidase

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

ETC

Electron transport chain

FAO

Fatty acid oxidation

HCM

Hypertropic cardiomyopathy

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

MELAS

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes

MERRF

Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fibers

mitoKATP

Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

mt-TFA

Mitochondrial transcription factor

NF-κB

Nuclear factor κ beta

NRF

Nuclear respiratory factor

OXPHOS

Oxidative phosphorylation

pI3k

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PKA

Protein kinase A

PKC

Protein kinase C

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor

PT

Permeability transition

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

TH

Thyroid hormone

UCP

Uncoupling protein

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Cardiology and Neuromuscular InstituteHighland ParkUSA

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