Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 102–115

Therapeutics for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current approaches and future directions

  • Sasha Bogdanovich
  • Kelly J. Perkins
  • Thomas O. B. Krag
  • Tejvir S. Khurana

DOI: 10.1007/s00109-003-0484-1

Cite this article as:
Bogdanovich, S., Perkins, K.J., Krag, T.O.B. et al. J Mol Med (2004) 82: 102. doi:10.1007/s00109-003-0484-1


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common X-linked neuromuscular disorder. The devastating nature of DMD has led to an intense effort toward finding a cure for this disease, dating back to the time when Duchenne first initiated clinical trials using faradic stimulation for DMD patients. Unfortunately despite the passage of some 150 years the disease remains incurable, and its medical management is largely supportive. However, the discovery of the DMD gene about 20 years ago has allowed a change in the focus of therapeutic strategy dramatically toward delivery of the missing gene/protein. Indeed, some degree of success has been achieved in preclinical animal studies using such strategies, and gene therapy trials are currently underway in humans. Pharmacological approaches for DMD are also being developed since they can circumvent some of the technical problems associated with gene and cell based therapy. This review explores developments in therapeutic approaches for DMD.


Dystrophy Therapy Mdx Utrophin Myostatin 



Becker muscular dystrophy


Dystrophin-associated protein complex


Duchenne muscular dystrophy


Dystrophin-related protein


Insulin-like growth factor


Dystrophin-deficient mouse


Neuromuscular junction


Transforming growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sasha Bogdanovich
    • 1
  • Kelly J. Perkins
    • 1
  • Thomas O. B. Krag
    • 1
  • Tejvir S. Khurana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Pennsylvania Muscle InstituteUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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