Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 81, Issue 12, pp 766–779 | Cite as

Paraoxonase gene polymorphisms, oxidative stress, and diseases

Review

Abstract

The paraoxonase (PON) gene cluster contains at least three members, including PON1, PON2, and PON3, located on chromosome 7q21.3–22.1. Until now there has been little insight into the role of the respective gene products in human physiology and pathology. However, emerging evidence from biochemical and genetic experiments is providing clues about the role(s) of the products of these genes, which indicates that PON(s) acts as important guardians against cellular damage from toxic agents, such as organophosphates, oxidized lipids in the plasma low-density lipoproteins. In parallel, substantial data have been published on the association between the polymorphisms of PON(s) and coronary heart disease. It has become clear that the polymorphisms significantly affect the prevalence of coronary heart disease. However, the associations between the PON(s) polymorphisms and most of these conditions were found to be inconsistent when additional populations were investigated. This contribution provides an overview of the status of research of each of the three genes and the available association studies and the potential problems in interpreting the data. We also review the current evidence on the association between PON(s) polymorphisms and diseases other than coronary heart disease and some metabolic quantitative phenotypes, such as plasma lipoproteins, plasma glucose, and birthweight. Finally, we suggest directions for the future that might elucidate the role of the PON genetic polymorphisms in this potentially important function of PON(s) and the role in coronary heart disease and other related diseases.

Keywords

Paraoxonase Coronary heart disease Polymorphism Atherosclerosis Review 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s dementia

Apo

Apolipoprotein

CHD

Coronary heart disease

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PON

Paraoxonase

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by “973” Basic Research Funding Scheme of China (G2000056902).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical SciencesChinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingP.R. China

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