Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 81, Issue 7, pp 392–403

Form and function of developing heart valves: coordination by extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling

  • Joyce A. Schroeder
  • Leslie F. Jackson
  • David C. Lee
  • Todd D. Camenisch
Invited Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00109-003-0456-5

Cite this article as:
Schroeder, J.A., Jackson, L.F., Lee, D.C. et al. J Mol Med (2003) 81: 392. doi:10.1007/s00109-003-0456-5

Abstract

It is becoming clear that converging pathways coordinate early heart valve development and remodeling into functional valve leaflets. The integration of these pathways begins with macro and molecular interactions outside the cell in the extracellular matrix separating the myocardial and endocardial tissue components of the rudimentary heart. Such interactions regulate events at the cell surface through receptors, proteases, and other membrane molecules which in turn transduce signals into the cell. These signals trigger intracellular cascades that transduce cellular responses through both transcription factor and cofactor activation mediating gene induction or suppression. Chamber septation and valve formation occur from these coordinated molecular events within the endocardial cushions to sustain unidirectional blood flow and embryo viability. This review discusses the emerging connection between extracellular matrix and growth factor receptor signaling during endocardial cushion morphogenesis by highlighting the extracellular component, hyaluronan, and erbB receptor functions during early valve development.

Keywords

Endocardial cushion morphogenesis Heart valve erbB Hyaluronan Extracellular matrix 

Abbreviations

AV

Atrioventricular

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

CHD

Congenital heart defects

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EMT

Epithelial to mesenchymal transformation

ERK

Extracellular signal regulated kinase

HA

Hyaluronan

Has

Hyaluronan synthase

HB

Heparin-binding

HRG

Heregulin

HSPG

Heparan sulfate proteoglycan

MAP

Mitogen-activated protein

OFT

Outflow tract

TACE

Tumor necrosis factor α converting enzyme

TGF

Transforming growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joyce A. Schroeder
    • 1
  • Leslie F. Jackson
    • 2
  • David C. Lee
    • 2
  • Todd D. Camenisch
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Arizona Cancer CenterUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of MedicineUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Steele Memorial Children's Research CenterUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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