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Der Internist

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 460–469 | Cite as

Induzierte pluripotente Stammzellen

Eine neue Ressource in der modernen Medizin
  • S. LiebauEmail author
  • M. Stockmann
  • A. Illing
  • T. Seufferlein
  • A. KlegerEmail author
Medizin aktuell

Zusammenfassung

Pluripotente Stammzellen besitzen ein unbegrenztes Selbsterneuerungs- und Differenzierungspotenzial zur Gewinnung sämtlicher Zellarten des menschlichen Organismus. Damit stellen sie ein einzigartiges Modell für die Beantwortung entwicklungsbiologischer Fragestellungen wie auch für die Zelltherapie und regenerative Medizin dar. Dem Arzt und Stammzellforscher S. Yamanaka gelang erstmals die Reprogrammierung somatischer Zellen zu sog. induzierten pluripotenten Stammzellen durch die ektope Expression der Transkriptionsfaktoren Oct4 („Octamer-binding transcription factor 4“), Sox2 („sex determining region Y – box 2“), Klf4 („Kruppel-like factor 4“) und c-Myc („v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog“). Damit revolutionierte er die Möglichkeiten in der regenerativen Medizin. Insbesondere eröffneten sich durch die Anwendung dieser Techniken im patienten- bzw. krankheitsspezifischen Kontext neue Möglichkeiten zur Modellierung von Krankheiten und zur individualisierten Testung von Medikamenten. Zudem rückt das sog. therapeutische Klonen einen ganzen Schritt näher. Die vorliegende Übersichtsarbeit soll daher dem klinisch tätigen Arzt einen Überblick über den Stand der Forschung und die klinische Anwendung pluripotenter Stammzellen geben.

Schlüsselwörter

Embryonale Stammzellen Klinische Anwendung Zelldifferenzierung Yamanaka-Faktoren Krankheitsmodellierung 

Induced pluripotent stem cells

A new resource in modern medicine

Abstract

Pluripotent stem cells possess a remarkable unlimited self-renewal capacity and offer unparalleled in vitro differentiation potential. This provides a unique model system not only to study early human development but also gives renewed hope in terms of developing cell therapies and regenerative medicine. S. Yamanaka, a medical doctor and researcher, reported the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells to so-called induced pluripotent stem cells via the ectopic expression of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. This Nobel Prize winning work has since revolutionized stem cell research and paved the way for countless new avenues within regenerative medicine. This includes disease modeling in a patient-specific context with the ultimate aim of individually tailored pharmaceutical therapy. Additionally, genetic correction studies have rapidly increased in basic science and thus there is hope that these can be effectively and efficiently translated into clinical applications. Addressing the medical community this review gives a broad general overview about the state of the research field and possible clinical applications of pluripotent stem cells.

Keywords

Embryonic stem cells Clinical application Cell differentiation Yamanaka factors Disease modeling 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt. S. Liebau, M. Stockmann, A. Illing, T. Seufferlein und A. Kleger geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht. Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für NeuroanatomieEberhard Karls Universität TübingenTübingenDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für Anatomie und ZellbiologieUniversität UlmUlmDeutschland
  3. 3.Abteilung für Innere Medizin 1, Zentrum für Innere MedizinUniversität UlmUlmDeutschland

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