Der Internist

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 79–88

Pharmakologische Rückfallprävention bei Alkohol- und Tabakabhängigkeit

Arzneimitteltherapie

Zusammenfassung

Mit zunehmendem Verständnis der neurobiologischen Grundlagen von Alkohol- oder Tabakabhängigkeit ist die Bedeutung medikamentöser Möglichkeiten zur Entwöhnung gestiegen. Bei der Alkoholabhängigkeit können Anti-Craving-Substanzen in Kombination mit psychotherapeutischen und psychosozialen Maßnahmen bisherige Behandlungserfolge beträchtlich steigern. Besonders zu nennen sind der in Deutschland in dieser Indikation zugelassene NMDA-Rezeptorantagonist Acamprosat und der Opiatrezeptorantagonist Naltrexon, deren Effekte auf die Rückfallprophylaxe in zahlreichen Studien belegt sind. Werden die zur Abstinenz motivierten Patienten nach Entgiftung ein Jahr lang medikamentös rückfallprophylaktisch behandelt, kommt es zu einer Verdoppelung der Abstinenzrate, die die eigentliche Behandlungszeit überdauert. Bei der Tabakabhängigkeit können Nikotinersatzpräparate in unterschiedlicher Applikationsform (Nikotinpflaster, Kaugummi, Tablette, Inhaler) die Entzugssymptomatik reduzieren und die Abstinenzfähigkeit steigern. In zahlreichen Studien erwies sich eine mit verhaltenstherapeutischen Methoden kombinierte Nikotinersatztherapie als am besten wirksam. Neben Nikotinersatzpräparaten ist das Antidepressivum Bupropion in dieser Indikation in Deutschland zugelassen. Neue individualisierte pharmakologische Ansätze in der Behandlung der Alkohol- und Tabakabhängigkeit sollen zukünftig die Therapieergebnisse weiter verbessern.

Schlüsselwörter

Alkoholabhängigkeit Tabakabhängigkeit Nikotin Rückfallprophylaxe Craving 

Pharmacological relapse prevention in alcohol and tobacco dependence

Abstract

A better understanding of the neurobiological substrates of alcohol and tobacco dependence has been accompanied by the increasing role of pharmacological relapse prevention. In alcohol dependence, substances which are able to block or ameliorate alcohol craving improve the maintenance of abstinence in combination with psychosocial treatment. In particular, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist acamprosate and the opiate receptor antagonist naltrexone have been shown to be effective in numerous trials. Administration starts immediately after detoxification and should last for 12 months. This treatment, however, is not a replacement for the psychosocial treatment of the alcohol dependence. Compared with placebo treatment, approximately twice as many patients remain abstinent under acamprosate 1 year after the end of treatment. The most widely studied and used pharmacotherapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence is nicotine containing medications. Nicotine replacement therapies (patch, gum, tablet, inhaler) have been shown to reduce tobacco craving and enhance abstinence. The only non-nicotine medication that has been approved in Germany is the antidepressant bupropion. Current studies identify particularly suitable subgroups of patients responding to more individualized pharmacological relapse prevention. A specific application of these substances will optimise the outcome for alcohol and tobacco dependent patients.

Keywords

Alcohol dependence Tobacco dependence Nicotine Relapse prevention Craving 

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Abhängiges Verhalten und SuchtmedizinZentralinstitut für Seelische GesundheitMannheimDeutschland

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