Advertisement

Wood flour thermoset composites using chemically modified epoxidized soybean oil

  • Moon Mandal
  • Pakiza Begum
  • Ramesh C. Deka
  • Tarun K. MajiEmail author
Original
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Thermosetting composites were prepared from chemically modified soybean oil and wood flour by compression molding technique. Resins prepared from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and softwood powder were used as matrix and reinforcing agent, respectively. ESO was modified initially by methacrylic acid and finally by methacrylic anhydride. For comparison, both neat resin and resin blended with styrene were used in the composite preparation. The probable interaction among the resin, styrene and wood flour was established by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, supported by density functional theory calculations. Surface morphology of the composites was evaluated by scanning electron microscope. The flexural strength of composites with styrene-based co-monomer was in the range of 60.47–72.04 MPa, whereas that of composites without styrene was between 25.68 and 37.62 MPa. The tensile strength of styrene-blended composites was varied between 22.15 and 35.87 MPa, whereas the tensile strength was in the range of 13.68–20.48 MPa for styrene-free composites. Styrene-blended composites showed an improvement in mechanical, thermal, water resistance and flame retardant properties over those of composites having no styrene. The higher the amount of methacrylic anhydride in the resin, the higher was the overall improvement in properties of composites.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Adekunle K, Åkesson D, Skrifvars M (2010a) Synthesis of reactive soybean oils for use as a biobased thermoset resins in structural natural fiber composites. J Appl Polym Sci 115:3137–3145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adekunle K, Åkesson D, Skrifvars M (2010b) Biobased composites prepared by compression molding with a novel thermoset resin from soybean oil and a natural-fiber reinforcement. J Appl Polym Sci 116:1759–1765Google Scholar
  3. Akaki T, Maehara H, Tooyama M (2012) Development of wood and wood ash-based hydroxyapatite composites and their fire-retarding properties. J Wood Sci 58:532–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appalakondaiah S, Vaitheeswaran G, Lebègue S, Christensen NE, Svane A (2012) Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and elastic properties of black phosphorus. Phys Rev B 86:035105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beach ES, Cui Z, Anastas PT, Zhan M, Wool RP (2013) Properties of thermosets derived from chemically modified triglycerides and bio-based comonomers. Appl Sci 3:684–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campanella A, La Scala JJ, Wool RP (2011) Fatty acid-based comonomers as styrene replacements in soybean and castor oil-based thermosetting polymers. J Appl Polym Sci 119:1000–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campanella A, Zhan M, Watt P, Grous AT, Shen C, Wool RP (2015) Triglyceride-based thermosetting resins with different reactive diluents and fiber reinforced composite applications. Compos A 72:192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Can E, Küsefoğlu S, Wool RP (2001) Rigid, thermosetting liquid molding resins from renewable resources. I. Synthesis and polymerization of soy oil monoglyceride maleates. J Appl Polym Sci 81:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Can E, Wool RP, Küsefoğlu S (2006) Soybean and castor oil based monomers: synthesis and copolymerization with styrene. J Appl Polym Sci 102:2433–2447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cousinet S, Ghadban A, Fleury E, Lortie F, Pascault J-P, Portinha D (2015) Toward replacement of styrene by bio-based methacrylates in unsaturated polyester resins. Eur Polym J 67:539–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Datta J, Włoch M (2014) Selected biotrends in development of epoxy resins and their composites. Polym Bull 71:3035–3049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delley B (1990) An all-electron numerical method for solving the local density functional for polyatomic molecules. J Chem Phys 92:508–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delley B (2000) From molecules to solids with the DMol3 approach. J Chem Phys 113:7756–7764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dong Y, Yan Y, Zhang S, Li J, Wang J (2015) Flammability and physical–mechanical properties assessment of wood treated with furfuryl alcohol and nano-SiO2. Eur J Wood Prod 73:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El-Hajjar RF, Qamhia II (2013) Modeling and characterization of the moisture-dependent bilinear behavior of regenerated cellulose composites. J Wood Sci 59:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Faruk O, Bledzki AK, Fink HP, Sain M (2012) Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000–2010. Prog Polym Sci 37:1552–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gassan J, Bledzki AK (2000) Possibilities to improve the properties of natural fiber reinforced plastics by fiber modification—jute polypropylene composites. Appl Compos Mater 7:373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghorbani M, Shahmirzadi AN, Amininasab SM (2017) Physical and morphological properties of combined treated wood polymer composites by maleic anhydride and methyl methacrylate. J Wood Chem Technol 37(6):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hazarika A, Maji TK (2013) Study on the properties of wood polymer nanocomposites based on melamine formaldehyde–furfuryl alcohol copolymer and modified clay. J Wood Chem Technol 33:103–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hong CK, Wool RP (2005) Development of a bio-based composite material from soybean oil and keratin fibers. J Appl Polym Sci 95:1524–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iman MI, Bania KK, Maji TK (2013) Green jute-based cross-linked soy flour nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose whiskers and nanoclay. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:6969–6983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Isogai A (2013) Wood nanocelluloses: fundamentals and applications as new bio-based nanomaterials. J Wood Sci 59:449–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. John MJ, Anandjiwala RD (2008) Recent developments in chemical modification and characterization of natural fiber-reinforced composites. Polym Compos 29:187–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kohn W, Sham LJ (1965) Self-consistent equations including exchange and correlation effects. Phys Rev A 140:1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kurimoto Y, Sasaki S (2013) Preparation of acetylated wood meal and polypropylene composites II: mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the composites. J Wood Sci 59:216–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. La Mantia FP, Morreale M (2011) Green composites: a brief review. Compos A 42:579–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee SH, Ashaari Z, Jamaludin FR, Yee CN, Ahamad WN (2017) Physico-mechanical properties of particleboard made from heat-treated rubberwood particles. Eur J Wood Prod 75:655–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu Z, Erhan SZ (2010) Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight. J Polym Environ 18:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu C, Yang X, Cui J, Zhou Y, Hu L, Zhang M, Liu H (2012) Tung oil based monomer for thermosetting polymers: synthesis, characterization, and copolymerization with styrene. Bioresources 7:447–463Google Scholar
  30. Liu W, Chen T, Xie T, Qiu R (2016) Soybean oil-based thermosets with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone as crosslinking agent for hemp fiber composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 82:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lu Y, Larock RC (2009) Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications. ChemSusChem 2:136–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lu J, Khot S, Wool RP (2005) New sheet molding compound resins from soybean oil. I. Synthesis and characterization. Polymer 46:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mandal M, Maji TK (2017) Comparative study on the properties of wood polymer composites based on different modified soybean oils. J Wood Chem Technol 37:124–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moog RS, Farrell JJ (2008) Chemistry: a guided inquiry, 6th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Mosiewicki MA, Aranguren MI (2016) Recent developments in plant oil based functional materials. Polym Int 65:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Donnell A, Dweib MA, Wool RP (2004) Natural fiber composites with plant oil-based resin. Compos Sci Technol 64:1135–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ortmann F, Bechstedt F, Schmidt WG (2006) Semiempirical van der Waals correction to the density functional description of solids and molecular structures. Phys Rev B 73:205101–205101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Perdew JP, Burke K, Wang Y (1996) Generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation hole of a many-electron system. Phys Rev B 54:16533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pickering KL, Efendy MGA, Le TM (2016) A review of recent developments in natural fibre composites and their mechanical performance. Compos A 83:98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shibata M, Yoshihara S, Yashiro M, Ohno Y (2013) Thermal and mechanical properties of sorbitol-based epoxy resin cured with quercetin and the biocomposites with wood flour. J Appl Polym Sci 128:2753–2758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014) Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites. Carbohydr Polym 109:102–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams GI, Wool RP (2000) Composites from natural fibers and soy oil resins. Appl Compos Mater 7:421–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xia Y, Larock RC (2010) Vegetable oil-based polymeric materials: synthesis, properties, and applications. Green Chem 12:1893–1909CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moon Mandal
    • 1
  • Pakiza Begum
    • 1
  • Ramesh C. Deka
    • 1
  • Tarun K. Maji
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical SciencesTezpur UniversityTezpurIndia

Personalised recommendations