European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 15–32 | Cite as

Production of fiberboard from rice straw thermomechanical extrudates by thermopressing: influence of fiber morphology, water and lignin content

  • Dyna Theng
  • Gerard Arbat
  • Marc Delgado-Aguilar
  • Bunthan Ngo
  • Laurent Labonne
  • Pere Mutjé
  • Philippe EvonEmail author


The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fiber morphology and molding parameters on the mechanical and physical properties of fiberboards made from rice straw. The rice straw was thermomechanically treated with a twin-screw extruder. Three parameters were investigated: the amount of water added at molding (0–20%), lignin content (0–25%), and the liquid/solid ratio used for extrudate production (0.33–1.07). A Doehlert experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of these factors on fiberboard properties. A liquid/solid ratio of 0.4 at extrudate production, the addition of 5% water at molding, and a lignin content of 8.9% were found to be optimal for bending properties. The fiberboard produced in these conditions had a density of 1414 kg/m3 (i.e. the densest board). Maximum flexural strength and elastic modulus were 50.3 MPa and 8.6 GPa, respectively. A thickness swelling of 23.6% and 17.6% water absorption were observed. The statistical analysis suggested that a good compromise between density and flexural properties could be obtained with the addition of 0% water, a lignin content of 25% and a liquid/solid ratio of 0.33 at extrudate production. Polynomial models suggested that the fiberboards produced in such conditions would have a maximum flexural strength of 50 MPa, an elastic modulus of 6.0 GPa, a density of 1102 kg/m3, and a thickness swelling of 24%.



The authors wish to thank the Erasmus + KA107 project for financial support. Special sincere gratitude is given to Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle (LCA), INP-ENSIACET, Toulouse, France for providing both raw materials and experimental support, and CIMV for supplying Biolignin™.

Supplementary material

107_2018_1358_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2271 KB)


  1. Anglès MN, Ferrando F, Farriol X, Salvadó J (2001) Suitability of steam exploded residual softwood for the production of binderless panels. Effect of the pre-treatment severity and lignin addition. Biomass Bioenerg 21:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Back EL (1987) The bonding mechanism in hardboard manufacture review report. Holzforsch Int J Biol Chem Phys Technol Wood 41:247–258Google Scholar
  3. CIMV TBC (2014) MSDS (CE) no 453/2010 biolignin. CIMV, FranceGoogle Scholar
  4. Domínguez-Robles J, Tarrés Q, Delgado-Aguilar M, Rodríguez A, Espinach FX, Mutjé P (2017) Approaching a new generation of fiberboards taking advantage of self lignin as green adhesive. Int J Biol Macromol 108:927–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Evon P, Vandenbossche V, Pontalier P-Y, Rigal L (2010) The twin-screw extrusion technology, an original and powerful solution for the biorefinery of sunflower whole plant. In: 18th European biomass conference and exhibition, Lyon, France, Open Archieve Toulouse Archieve Ouverte (OATAO)Google Scholar
  6. Evon P, Vandenbossche V, Pontalier P-Y, Rigal L (2014) New thermal insulation fiberboards from cake generated during biorefinery of sunflower whole plant in a twin-screw extruder. Ind Crops Prod 52:354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Evon P, Vinet J, Labonne L, Rigal L (2015) Influence of thermo-pressing conditions on the mechanical properties of biodegradable fiberboards made from a deoiled sunflower cake. Ind Crops Prod 65:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Evon P, Barthod-Malat B, Grégoire M, Vaca-Medina G, Labonne L, Ballas S, Véronèse T, Ouagne P (2018) Production of fiberboards from shives collected after continuous fiber mechanical extraction from oleaginous flax. J Nat Fibers. Google Scholar
  9. Gosselink RJ, van Dam JE, de Jong E, Gellerstedt G, Scott EL, Sanders JP (2011) Effect of periodate on lignin for wood adhesive application. Holzforsch 65:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Halvarsson S, Edlund H, Norgren M (2008) Properties of medium-density fibreboard (MDF) based on wheat straw and melamine modified urea formaldehyde (UMF) resin. Ind Crops Prod 28:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Halvarsson S, Edlund H, Norgren M (2009) Manufacture of high-performance rice-straw fiberboards. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:1428–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Konica Minolta Sensing (2007) Let’s study color. In: Precise color communication, Part I. Konica Minolta, Inc., TokyoGoogle Scholar
  13. Lin Z, Liu L, Li R, Shi J (2012) Screw extrusion pretreatments to enhance the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. J Microb Biochem Technol S 12:002. Google Scholar
  14. Mancera C, El Mansouri N-E, Pelach MA, Francesc F, Salvadó J (2012) Feasibility of incorporating treated lignins in fiberboards made from agricultural waste. Waste Manag 32:1962–1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mason W (1928) Process of making structural insulating boards of exploded lignocellulose fiber. MF Company, LaurelGoogle Scholar
  16. Miki T, Takakura N, Iizuka T, Yamaguchi K, Kanayama K (2003) Possibility of extrusion of wood powders. JSME Int J Ser A Solid Mech Mater Eng 46:371–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mobarak F, Fahmy Y, Augustin H (1982) Binderless lignocellulose composite from bagasse and mechanism of self-bonding. Holzforsch Int J Biol Chem Phys Technol Wood 36:131–136Google Scholar
  18. Murugan P, Mahinpey N, Johnson KE, Wilson M (2008) Kinetics of the pyrolysis of lignin using thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry methods. Energ Fuels 22:2720–2724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. NEMRODW (2015) A performing software for the design and analysis of experimental plans. Accessed 1 Sep 2016
  20. Okuda N, Hori K, Sato M (2006) Chemical changes of kenaf core binderless boards during hot pressing (II): effects on the binderless board properties. J Wood Sci 52:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Orliac O, Rouilly A, Silvestre F, Rigal L (2003) Effects of various plasticizers on the mechanical properties, water resistance and aging of thermo-moulded films made from sunflower proteins. Ind Crops Prod 18:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ouagne P, Barthod-Malat B, Evon Ph, Labonne L, Placet V (2017) Fibre extraction from oleaginous flax for technical textile applications: influence of pre-processing parameters on fibre extraction yield, size distribution and mechanical properties. Procedia Eng 200:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pintiaux T, Viet D, Vandenbossche V, Rigal L, Rouilly A (2015) Binderless materials obtained by thermo-compressive processing of lignocellulosic fibers: a comprehensive review. BioResource 10:1915–1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Saadaoui N, Rouilly A, Fares K, Rigal L (2013) Characterization of date palm lignocellulosic by-products and self-bonded composite materials obtained thereof. Mater Des 50:302–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shen KC (1986) Process for manufacturing composite products from lignocellulosic materials. US4627951A PatentGoogle Scholar
  26. Tajuddin M, Ahmad Z, Ismail H (2016) A review of natural fibers and processing operations for the production of binderless boards. BioResource 11:5600–5617Google Scholar
  27. Takahashi I, Sugimoto T, Takasu Y, Yamasaki M, Sasaki Y, Kikata Y (2010) Preparation of thermoplastic molding from steamed Japanese beech flour. Holzforsch Int J Biol Chem Phys Technol Wood 64:229–234Google Scholar
  28. Theng D (2017) Feasibility of incorporating treated lignin and cellulose nanofiber in fiberboards made from corn stalk and rice straw. Ph.D thesis, University of Girona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  29. Theng D, Arbat G, Delgado-Aguilar M, Vilaseca F, Ngo B, Mutjé P (2015) All-lignocellulosic fiberboard from corn biomass and cellulose nanofibers. Ind Crops Prod 76:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Theng D, Arbat G, Delgado-Aguilar M, Ngo B, Labonne L, Evon P, Mutjé P (2017a) Comparison between two different pretreatment technologies of rice straw fibers prior to fiberboard manufacturing: twin-screw extrusion and digestion plus defibration. Ind Crops Prod 107:184–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Theng D, El Mansouri N, Arbat G, Ngo B, Delgado-Aguilar M, Àngels Pelach M, Fullana-i-Palmer P, Mutje P (2017b) Fiberboards made from corn stalk thermomechanical pulp and kraft lignin as green adhesive. BioResource 12:2379–2393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Uitterhaegen E, Nguyen QH, Merah O, Stevens CV, Talou T, Rigal L, Evon P (2016) New renewable and biodegradable fiberboards from a coriander press cake. J Renew Mater 4:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Uitterhaegen E, Labonne L, Merah O, Talou T, Ballas S, Véronèse T, Evon P (2017) Optimization of thermopressing conditions for the production of binderless boards from a coriander twin-screw extrusion cake. J Appl Polym Sci. Google Scholar
  34. Van Soest PJ, Wine RH (1967) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrious feeds. IV. Determination of plant cell wall constituents. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 50:50–55Google Scholar
  35. Van Soest PJ, Wine RH (1968) Determination of lignin and cellulose in acid detergent fiber with permanganate. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 51:780–784Google Scholar
  36. Van Dam JE, van den Oever MJ, Teunissen W, Keijsers ER, Peralta AG (2004) Process for production of high density/high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk: Part 1: lignin as intrinsic thermosetting binder resin. Ind Crops Prod 19:207–216Google Scholar
  37. Vandenbossche V, Brault J, Vilarem G, Rigal L (2015) Bio-catalytic action of twin-screw extruder enzymatic hydrolysis on the deconstruction of annual plant material: case of sweet corn co-products. Ind Crops Prod 67:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vandenbossche V, Brault J, Hernandez-Melendez O, Evon P, Barzana E, Vilarem G, Rigal L (2016) Suitability assessment of a continuous process combining thermo-mechano-chemical and bio-catalytic action in a single pilot-scale twin-screw extruder for six different biomass sources. Bioresour Technol 211:146–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Widyorini R, Xu J, Umemura K, Kawai S (2005) Manufacture and properties of binderless particleboard from bagasse I: effects of raw material type, storage methods, and manufacturing process. J Wood Sci 51:648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xu J, Widyorini R, Yamauchi H, Kawai S (2006) Development of binderless fiberboard from kenaf core. J Wood Sci 52:236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yamashita O, Imanishi H, Kanayama K (2007) Transfer molding of bamboo. J Mater Process Technol 192:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamashita O, Yokochi H, Miki T, Kanayama K (2009) The pliability of wood and its application to molding. J Mater Process Technol 209:5239–5244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang D, Zhang A, Xue L (2015) A review of preparation of binderless fiberboards and its self-bonding mechanism. Wood Sci Technol 49:661–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LEPAMAP Research GroupUniversity of GironaGironaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Agricultural Engineering and Food TechnologyUniversity of GironaGironaSpain
  3. 3.Royal University of AgriculturePhnom PenhCambodia
  4. 4.Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle (LCA)Université de Toulouse, ENSIACET, INRA, INPTToulouse Cedex 4France

Personalised recommendations