European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 75, Issue 5, pp 785–806 | Cite as

Factors influencing the processing and technological properties of laminates based on phenolic resin impregnated papers

  • Marion ThébaultEmail author
  • Andreas Kandelbauer
  • Uwe Müller
  • Edith Zikulnig-Rusch
  • Herfried Lammer


High quality decorative laminate panels typically consist of two major types of components: the surface layers comprising décor and overlay papers that are impregnated with melamine-based resins, and the core which is made of stacks of kraft papers impregnated with phenolic (PF) resin. The PF-impregnated layers impart superior hydrolytic stability, mechanical strength and fire-resistance to the composite. The manufacturing involves the complex interplay between resin, paper and impregnation/drying processes. Changes in the input variables cause significant alterations in the process characteristics and adaptations of the used materials and specific process conditions may, in turn, be required. This review summarizes the main variables influencing both processability and technological properties of phenolic resin impregnated papers and laminates produced therefrom. It is aimed at presenting the main influences from the involved components (resin and paper), how these may be controlled during the respective process steps (resin preparation and paper production), how they influence the impregnation and lamination conditions, how they affect specific aspects of paper and laminate performance, and how they interact with each other (synergies).



The present work is part of the COMET program of the Austrian FFG, project number 844608, managed by Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Sankt Veit, Austria. Professors Antonio Pizzi and Marie-Christine Trouy of the Lermab laboratory of University of Lorraine in Epinal, France, are also thanked for permitting observations of impregnated paper samples in Scanning Electron Microscopy.


  1. Alava M, Dubé M, Rost M (2004) Imbibition in disordered media. Adv Phys 53:83–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albuquerque PFQ de (2013) Painéis fenólicos para aplicação em fachadas exteriores (Phenolic panels for application on exterior facades) (In Portuguese) Dissertation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de LisboaGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvino WM, Mungin H, Brooker LG (1988) Water-soluble impregnating resins. Patent GB2203746AGoogle Scholar
  4. Anastasiadis SH, Gancarz I, Koberstein JT (1988) Interfacial tension of immiscible polymer blends: temperature and molecular weight dependence. Macromolecules 21:2980–2987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baird PK, Seidl RJ, Fahey DJ (1956) Effect of phenolic resins on physical properties of kraft paper. Report n°1750. Forest Products Laboratory, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajpai P (2013) Pulp and paper making process. In: handbook of pulping and papermaking. London, pp 7–11Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin CA, Sederman AJ, Mantle MD, Alexander P, Gladden LF (1996) Determination and characterization of the structure of a pore space from 3D volume images. J Colloid Interface Sci 181:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer K, Kandelbauer A (2004) Transparenzverbesserungen im Fußbodenlaminatbereich (transparency improvements in the floor laminate area) (In German) In: Nanocoating Days, Nanofair: Nanocoating Days 14, -15. St. Gallen, Switzerland, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  9. Bechtold G, Ye L (2003) Influence of fibre distribution on the transverse flow permeability in fibre bundles. Compos Sci Technol 63:2069–2079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Belgacem MN, Gandini A (1999) Inverse gas chromatography as a Tool to characterize dispersive and acid–base properties of the surface of fibers and powders. In: Interfacial phenomenoa in chromatography, Marcel D, Pefferkorn E (ed), pp 41–124Google Scholar
  11. Bernadiner M (1998) A capillary microstructure of the wetting front. Transp porous media 30:251–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhardwaj NK, Bajpai P, Bajpai PK (1997) Enhancement of strength and drainage of secondary fibres. Appita J 50:230–232Google Scholar
  13. Blunt M, King MJ, Scher H (1992) Simulation and theory of two-phase flow in porous media. Phys Rev A 46:7680–7699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosanquet CH (1923) LV. On the flow of liquids into capillary tubes. Philos Mag Ser 6 45:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brazier KA (1993) Saturating kraft requirements for decorative and industrial laminates. Tappi J 76:203–206Google Scholar
  16. Bristow JA (1967) Liquid absorption into paper during short time intervals. Sven Papperstidning-Nordisk Cellul 70:623–629Google Scholar
  17. Bryant S, Blunt M (1992) Prediction of relative permeability in simple porous media. Phys Rev A 46:2004–2011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Callegari G, Tyomkin I, Kornev KG, Neimark AV, Hsieh YL (2011) Absorption and transport properties of ultra-fine cellulose webs. J Colloid Interface Sci 353:290–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Centea T, Hubert P (2011) Measuring the impregnation of an out-of-autoclave prepreg by micro-CT. Compos Sci Technol 71:593–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen S, Chen D (2002) Development of reactive paper strength agent -N-chloropolyacrylamide. China Pulp Pap 3:3Google Scholar
  21. Chen XM, Kornev KG, Kamath YK, Neimark AV (2001) The wicking kinetics of liquid droplets into yarns. Text Res J 71:862–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clarke A, Blake TD, Carruthers K, Woodward A (2002) Spreading and imbibition of liquid droplets on porous surfaces. Langmuir 18:2980–2984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Danielson B, Simonson R (1998) Kraft lignin in phenol formaldehyde resin. Part 1. Partial replacement of phenol by kraft lignin in phenol formaldehyde adhesives for plywood. J Adhes Sci Technol 12:923–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Danino D, Marmur A (1994) Radial capillary penetration into paper: limited and unlimited liquid reservoirs. J Colloid Interface Sci 166:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daun M (2007) Model for the dynamics of liquid penetration into porous structures and its detection with the help of changes in ultrasonic attenuation. Dissertation. Technische Universität, DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  26. Dubé M, Rost M, Alava M (2000) Conserved dynamics and interface roughening in spontaneous imbibition: A critical overview. Eur Phys J B 15:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Emmert EG, Torstenson SA (1960) Apparatus for determining absorption and liquid penetration of paper. Patent US2931977AGoogle Scholar
  28. Enomae T, Kataoka H, Onabe F (1999) In-plane distribution of paper absorbency measured by liquid absorption profilometer. Sen’i Gakkaishi 55:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. European Phenolic Resin Association (2015) Phenolic Resins for Impregnation. Accessed 18 Nov 2015
  30. Fenwick DH, Blunt MJ (1998) Three-dimensional modeling of three phase imbibition and drainage. Adv Water Resour 21:121–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fiedler D, Ferse D (2010) Funktionalisierung von Dekorpapieren durch Strichaufträge und Erhalt der Imprägnierfähigkeit (Functionalization of decoration paper by coating application and preservation of the impregnation ability) (In German) Report PTS-Forschungsbericht IW 081047, Papiertechnische Stiftung PTS, Heidenau, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  32. Figueiredo ABB, Evtuguin DVV, Monteiro J, Cardoso EF, Mena PC, Cruz P (2011) Structure–surface property relationships of kraft papers: implication on impregnation with phenol–formaldehyde resin. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:2883–2890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2016) FAOStats. Accessed 31 Mar 2016
  34. Forsstroem J, Andreasson B, Wagberg L (2005) Influence of pore structure and water retaining ability of fibres on the strength of papers from unbleached kraft fibres. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 20:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Franck AJ (2004) Understanding rheology of thermosets. TA Instrum AAN 015:14Google Scholar
  36. Gabriel G (1999) Investigation of the interactions between liquids and paper by the means of ultrasonic signals. Dissertation, Technische Universität Graz, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  37. Gane PA, Kettle JP, Matthews GP, Ridgway CJ (1996) Void space structure of compressible polymer spheres and consolidated calcium carbonate paper-coating formulations. Ind Eng Chem Res 35:1753–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gardziella A, Pilato LA, Knop A (2000) Phenolic resins (2nd edn). Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gharehkhani S, Sadeghinezhad E, Kazi SN, Yarmand H, Badarudin A, Safaei MR, Zubir MNM (2015) Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties—a review. Carbohydr Polym 115:785–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gladkikh M, Bryant S (2003) Prediction of interfacial areas during imbibition in simple porous media. Adv Water Resour 26:609–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goel A, Tzanakakis M, Huang S, Ramaswamy S, Choi D, Ramarao BV (2001) Characterization of the three-dimensional structure of paper using X-ray microtomography. Tappi J 84:72–72Google Scholar
  42. Golfman Y (2007) Impregnation process for prepregs and braided composites. J Adv Mater (3):5–10Google Scholar
  43. Golombek J (1991) Method for determining solidification degree of carrier impregnated with reaction resin. Patent US 5001068 AGoogle Scholar
  44. Grenier-Loustalot MF, Larroque S, Grande D, Grenier P, Bedel D (1996a) Phenolic resins: 2. Influence of catalyst type on reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Polymer (Guildf) 37:1363–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grenier-Loustalot MF, Larroque S, Grenier P (1996b) Phenolic resins: 5. Solid-state physicochemical study of resoles with variable F/P ratios. Polymer (Guildf) 37:639–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gustafsson MGL (2000) Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy. J Microsc 198(2):82–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hasuike M, Kawasaki T, Murakami K (1992). Evaluation method of 3-D geometric structure of paper sheet. J Pulp Pap Sci 18:J114–J120Google Scholar
  48. Haupt RA (1999) Relationship between phenol formaldehyde resin chemistry and paper saturation. Tappi J 82:132–136Google Scholar
  49. Haupt RA, Sellers T (1994) Characterizations of phenol-formaldehyde resol resins. Ind Eng Chem Res 33:693–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hernández S, Sket F, Molina-Aldareguía JM, González CL, Lorca J (2011) Effect of curing cycle on void distribution and interlaminar shear strength in polymer-matrix composites. Compos Sci Technol 71:1331–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Higuchi M, Urakawa T, Morita M (2001) Condensation reactions of phenolic resins. 1. Kinetics and mechanisms of the base-catalyzed self-condensation of 2-hydroxymethylphenol. Polymer (Guildf) 42:4563–4567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hochsteiner S, Lenz S, Stultschnik J (2016) Measuring device and measuring method for measuring the resin impregnation of a substrate. Patent AT517076 (A4)Google Scholar
  53. Holik H (2013) Handbook of paper and board. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Horvath VK, Stanley HE (1995) Temporal scaling of interfaces propagating in porous media. Phys Rev E 52:5166–5169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Howarth P, Schindler MK (1985) The aerial distribution of liquid penetration of paper. FR C Oxford, England: 483–496Google Scholar
  56. Hubbe MA, Jackson TL, Zhang M (2003) Fiber surface saturation as a strategy to optimize dual-polymer dry strength treatment. Tappi J 2:7–12Google Scholar
  57. Hubert P, Poursartip A (1998) Review of flow and compaction modelling relevant to thermoset matrix laminate processing. J Reinf Plast Compos 17:286–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hughes RG, Blunt MJ (2000) Pore scale modeling of rate effects in imbibition. Transp Porous Media 40:295–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jalbert C, Koberstein JT, Yilgor I, Gallagher P, Krukonis V (1993) Molecular weight dependence and end-group effects on the surface tension of poly(dimethylsiloxane). Macromolecules 26:3069–3074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jerauld GR, Salter SJ (1990) The effect of pore-structure on hysteresis in relative permeability and capillary pressure: Pore-level modeling. Transp Porous Media 5:103–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jiang B, Huang YD (2007) Near infrared spectroscopy for on-line monitoring of alkali-free cloth/phenolic resin prepreg during manufacture. Int J Mol Sci 8:541PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnson RW (1998) The handbook of fluid dynamics. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  63. Jönsson KA-S, Jönsson BTL (1992) Fluid flow in compressible porous media: I: steady-state conditions. AIChE J 38:1340–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kandelbauer A, Teischinger A (2010) Dynamic mechanical properties of decorative papers impregnated with melamine formaldehyde resin. Eur J Wood Prod 68:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kent HJ, Lyne MB (1989) On the penetration of printing ink into paper. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 4:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kiran E, Iyer RR (1993) Cure behavior of paper-phenolic systems†¯: assessment of the progress of cure by differential scanning calorimetry. Tappi J 76:128–138Google Scholar
  67. Kiran E, Iyer R (1994) Cure behavior of paper–phenolic composite systems: kinetic modeling. J Appl Polym Sci 51:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kissa E (1996) Wetting and wicking. Text Res J 66:660–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Koberstein JT (2004) Molecular design of functional polymer surfaces. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 42:2942–2956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kohlmayr M, Stultschnik J, Teischinger A, Kandelbauer A (2014) Drying and curing behaviour of melamine formaldehyde resin impregnated papers. J Appl Polym Sci 131:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Krajnc M, Golob J, Podržaj J, Barborič F (2000) A kinetic model of resol curing in the production of industrial laminates. Acta Chim Slov 47:99–109Google Scholar
  72. Krässig HA (1993) Cellulose: structure accessibility and reactivity. Polym Monographs 11:240Google Scholar
  73. Laleg M, Pikulik ZI (1993) Unconventional strength additives. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 08:041–047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lam CNC, Wu R, Li D, Hair ML, Neumann AW (2002) Study of the advancing and receding contact angles: Liquid sorption as a cause of contact angle hysteresis. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 96:169–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lang J, Cornick M (2010) Resole production. In: Phenolic resins: a century of progress. Pilato LA (ed). Springer, Berlin, pp 139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Laza JM, Vilas JL, Mijangos F, Rodríguez M, León LM (2005) Analysis of the crosslinking process of epoxy-phenolic mixtures by thermal scanning rheometry. J Appl Polym Sci 98:818–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lee HL (2014) The handbook of dielectric analysis and cure monitoring. Lambient Technologies, BostonGoogle Scholar
  78. Lenormand R, Zarcone C (1984) Role of roughness and edges during imbibition in square capillaries. Proc. SPE Annu. Tech. Conf. ExhibGoogle Scholar
  79. Lenormand R, Zarcone C, Sarr A (1983) Mechanisms of the displacement of one fluid by another in a network of capillary ducts. J Fluid Mech 135:337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lenormand R, Touboul E, Zarcone C (1988) Numerical models and experiments on immiscible displacements in porous media. J Fluid Mech 189:165–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lepedat K, Wagner R, Lang J (2010) Laminates. In: Phenolic resins: a century of progress. Springer, Berlin, pp 243–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Li TQ, Henriksson U, Oedberg L (1993) Determination of pore sizes in wood cellulose fibers by deuterium and proton NMR. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 8:326–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Li W, Huang YD, Liu L, Jiang B (2006a) The application of near infrared spectroscopy in the quality control analysis of glass/phenolic resin prepreg. J Mater Sci 41:7183–7189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Li W, Huang YD, Liu L, Jiang B (2006b) On-line monitoring of resin content and volatile content in carbon/phenolic resin prepreg cloth by near-infrared spectroscopy. Polym Polym Compos 14:537–543Google Scholar
  85. Lindström T, Wågberg L, Larsson T (2005) On the nature of joint strength in paper—a review of dry and wet strength resins used in paper manufacturing. In: 13th Fundamental Research Symposium. Cambridge, pp 457–562Google Scholar
  86. Liu Z, Wu H (2016) Pore-scale modeling of immiscible two-phase flow in complex porous media. Appl Therm Eng 93:1394–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lyne L, Madsen V (1964) An apparatus for the measurement of liquid penetration into porous webs at a press nip. Pulp Pap Mag Canada 65:T523–T527Google Scholar
  88. Magalhaes WLE, Kelley SS, Lucia LA (2009) The use of near-​IR and differential scanning calorimetry to develop models that predict the extent of phenolic resin curing in impregnated kraft paper. Papel 70:62–71.Google Scholar
  89. Mahendran AR, Wuzella G, Kandelbauer A (2010) Thermal characterization of kraft lignin phenol-formaldehyde resin for paper impregnation. J Adhes Sci Technol 24:1553–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mahmud WM, Nguyen VH (2006) Effects of snap-off in imbibition in porous media with different spatial correlations. Transp Porous Media 64:279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Maloney TC, Li TQ, Weise U, Paulapuro H (1997) Intra- and inter-fibre pore closure in wet pressing. Appita J 50:301–306Google Scholar
  92. Maloney TC, Todorovic A, Paulapuro H (1998) The effect of fiber swelling on press dewatering. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 13:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Marmur A (1988) Drop penetration into a thin porous medium. J Colloid Interface Sci 123:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Marmur A, Cohen RD (1997) Characterization of porous media by the kinetics of liquid penetration: the vertical capillaries model. J Colloid Interface Sci 189:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Martic G, Gentner F, Seveno D, Coulon D, De Coninck J, Blake TD (2002) A molecular dynamics simulation of capillary imbibition. Langmuir 18:7971–7976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Marton R, Crosby CM (1969) Distribution of phenolic resins in laminating papers. Tappi 52:681–688Google Scholar
  97. Matthews GP, Ridgway CJ, Spearing MC (1995) Void space modeling of mercury intrusion hysteresis in sandstone, paper coating, and other porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci 171:8–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Megson NJL (1948) Molecular structure and its influence on the properties of phenolic resins. J Soc Chem Ind 67:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mogensen K, Stenby EH (1998) A dynamic two-phase pore-scale model of imbibition. Transp Porous Media 32:299–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moutinho I, Figueiredo M, Ferreira P (2007) Evaluating the surface energy of laboratory-made paper sheets by contact angle measurements. Tappi J 6:26–32Google Scholar
  101. Mullins BJ, Braddock RD, Kasper G (2007) Capillarity in fibrous filter media: relationship to filter properties. Chem Eng Sci 62:6191–6198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Napier JD (1964) Liquid penetration into paper. Pap Technol 5:275–280Google Scholar
  103. Nederveen CJ (1994) Absorption of liquid in highly porous nonwovens. Tappi J 77:174–180Google Scholar
  104. Nguyen VH, Sheppard AP, Knackstedt MA, Val Pinczewski W (2006) The effect of displacement rate on imbibition relative permeability and residual saturation. J Pet Sci Eng 52:54–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pan N, Zhong W (2006) Fluid transport phenomena in fibrous materials. Text Prog 38:1–93Google Scholar
  106. PaperOnWeb (2015a) Properties of Paper. Accessed 3 Nov 2015
  107. PaperOnWeb (2015b) Chemicals Used in Pulp and Paper Manufacturing and Coating. Accessed 3 Nov 2015
  108. Park B-D, Riedl B, Hsu EW, Shields J (1999) Differential scanning calorimetry of phenol–formaldehyde resins cure-accelerated by carbonates. Polymer (Guildf) 40:1689–1699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Park B-D, Riedl B, Kim Y, So W, Yoon SK, So W, Kim Y, So W (2002) Effect of synthesis parameters on thermal behavior of phenol-formaldehyde resol resin. J Appl Polym Sci 83:1415–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Peng W, Riedl B (1994) The chemorheology of phenol-formaldehyde thermoset resin and mixtures of the resin with lignin fillers. Polymer (Guildf) 35:1280–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pezron I, Bourgain G, Quéré D (1995) Imbibition of a Fabric. J Colloid Interface Sci 173:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pilato L (2010a) Resin chemistry. In: Phenolic resins: a century of progress. Pilato LA (ed). Springer, Berlin, pp 41–91Google Scholar
  113. Pilato LA (2010b) Phenolic resins: a century of progress. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pizzi A (1989) Wood adhesives: chemistry and technology—Volume 2. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  115. Pizzi A (1994) Advanced wood adhesives technology. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  116. Pizzi A, Mittal KL (2003) Handbook of adhesive technology, second edition, revised and expanded. Marcel Dekker, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Plenco-Plastics Engineering Company (2015) Phenolic Novolac and Resol Resin— Accessed 14 Jul 2015
  118. Price D, Osborn RH, Davis JW (1953) A liquid penetration test for measuring the sizing of paper. Tappi J 36:42–46Google Scholar
  119. Ramaswamy S, Ramarao BV (2004) 3-D Characterization of the Structure of Paper and Paperboard and Their Application to Optimize Drying and Water Removal Processes and End-Use Applications (DOE Project DE-FC07-00ID13873).Google Scholar
  120. Ransohoff TC, Gauglitz PA, Radke CJ (1987) Snap-off of gas-bubbles in smoothly constricted noncircular capilaries. AIChE J 33:753–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rasi M (2013) Permeability Properties of Paper. Dissertation, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  122. Ravey C, Ruiz E, Trochu F (2014) Determination of the optimal impregnation velocity in resin transfer molding by capillary rise experiments and infrared thermography. Compos Sci Technol 99:96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Reghunadhan Nair CP (2004) Advances in addition-cure phenolic resins. Prog Polym Sci 29:401–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rideal EK (1922) CVIII. On the flow of liquids under capillary pressure. Philos Mag Ser 6 44:1152–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ridgway CJ, Gane P a C, Schoelkopf J (2002) Effect of capillary element aspect ratio on the dynamic imbibition within porous networks. J Colloid Interface Sci 252:373–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ridgway CJ, Schoelkopf J, Gane PAC (2003) A new method for measuring the liquid permeability of coated and uncoated papers and boards. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 18:377–381.Google Scholar
  127. Rioux RW (2003) The rate of fluid absorption in porous media. Dissertation, The University of MaineGoogle Scholar
  128. Roberts RJ (2004) Liquid penetration into paper. Dissertation, Australian National University (ANU)Google Scholar
  129. Roberts RJ, Evans PD (2005) Effects of manufacturing variables on surface quality and distribution of melamine formaldehyde resin in paper laminates. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 36:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Roberts RJ, Senden TJ, Knackstedt M a, Lyne MB (2003) Spreading of Aqueous Liquids in Unsized Papers is by Film Flow. J Pulp Pap Sci 29:123–131Google Scholar
  131. Salminen P (1988) Studies of water transport in paper during short contact times. Laboratory of Paper Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo AkademiGoogle Scholar
  132. Samuelsen EJ, Gregersen OW, Houen PJ, Helle T, Raven C, Snigirev A (2001) Three-dimensional imaging of paper by use of synchrotron X-ray microtomography. J Pulp Pap Sci 27:50–53Google Scholar
  133. Sanchez IC (2013) Physics of polymer surfaces and interfaces. Butterworth-HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  134. Schoelkopf J (2002) Observation and Modelling of Fluid Transport into Porous Paper Coating Structures. Dissertation, University of PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  135. Schultz J, Nardin M (1992) Determination of the surface energy of Solids by the two-liquid-phase method. In: Modern approaches to wettability. Springer US, Boston, pp 73–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schwaiger E, Kandelbauer A, Teischinger A (2009) Practicalities and limitations of measuring techniques for paper properties that affect flexographic printability—a review. Nordic Pulp Paper Res J 24 (3) 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Senden TJ, Knackstedt MA, Lyne MB (2000) Droplet penetration into porous networks: role of pore morphology. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 15:554–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sozer E, Shyy W (2008) Multi-scale thermo-fluid transport in porous media. Int J Numer Methods Heat Fluid Flow 18:883–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tobiason FL (1990) Phenolic Resin Adhesives. In: Handbook of Adhesives. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 316–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Toyama N, Noda J, Okabe T (2003) Quantitative damage detection in cross-ply laminates using Lamb wave method. Compos Sci Technol 63:1473–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tran T (2012) The Reduction of Glycerol Flow in a Porous Medium Through a Barrier Coating Application. Dissertation, Western Michigan UniversityGoogle Scholar
  142. Valdez D, Nagy E (2010) Analyses/testing. In: Phenolic resins: a century of progress. Pilato LA (ed). Springer, Berlin, pp 93–135Google Scholar
  143. Van Oss C, Good R, Chaudhury M, Oss C (1988) Additive and nonadditive surface tension components and the interpretation of contact angles. Langmuir 4:884–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Van Oss CJ, Ju L, Chaudhury MK, Good RJ (1989) Estimation of the polar parameters of the surface tension of liquids by contact angle measurements on gels. J Colloid Interface Sci 128:313–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Walji N (2015) Characterization of fluid flow in paper-based microfluidic devices. Dissertation, University of Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  146. Wang YX, Ishida H (2002) Development of low-viscosity benzoxazine resins and their polymers. J Appl Polym Sci 86:2953–2966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wang M, Leitch M, (Charles) Xu C (2009) Synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resol resins using organosolv pine lignins. Eur Polym J 45:3380–3388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Weise U, Maloney T, Paulapuro H (1996) Quantification of water in different states of interaction with wood pulp fibres. Cellulose 3:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Windle W, Beazley K, Climpson M (1970) Liquid migration from coating colors 2. The mechanism of migration. Tappi J 53:2232–2236Google Scholar
  150. Xiang X, Bousfield DW, Hassler J, Coleman P, Osgood A (1999) Measurement of local variation of ink tack dynamics. J pulp Pap Sci 25:326–330Google Scholar
  151. Yang L (2013) A physical model for liquid movement into a porous substrate under the action of a pressure pulse. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 28:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ysbrandy RE, Gerischer GFR, Sanderson RD (1995) Preparation of binders from inexpensive by-products for use in high-pressure phenolic laminates -II. Bagasse Lignin as an Extender in Phenolic Impregnating Varnishes Based on Phenol Reset and Phenosolvan Pitch Resol. Papier 49:162–171.Google Scholar
  153. Yuan Y, Lee TR (2013) Contact angle and wetting properties. In: Springer Series in Surface Sciences 51, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp 3–34Google Scholar
  154. Zankel A, Kraus B, Poelt P, Schaffer M, Ingolic E (2009) Ultramicrotomy in the ESEM, a versatile method for materials and life sciences. J Microsc 233:140–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zunker DW, Breazeale AF (1983) Pilot and mill demonstrations of polyvinyl alcohol as wet-end paper strength additive. Tappi J 66:37–40Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marion Thébault
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andreas Kandelbauer
    • 3
  • Uwe Müller
    • 1
    • 2
  • Edith Zikulnig-Rusch
    • 1
    • 2
  • Herfried Lammer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH (Wood K Plus)LinzAustria
  2. 2.c/o Wood Carinthian Competence Center (W3C)Sankt Veit an der GlanAustria
  3. 3.Hochschule Reutlingen, Fakultät Angewandte ChemieReutlingenGermany

Personalised recommendations