European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 75, Issue 5, pp 767–776 | Cite as

Bonding of densified beech wood using adhesives based on thermally modified soy proteins

  • Doroteja VnučecEmail author
  • Jure Žigon
  • Marica Mikuljan
  • Frederick A. Kamke
  • Milan Šernek
  • Andreja Kutnar
  • Andreja Goršek


The bondability/glueability of aged and sanded thermo-hydro-mechanically (THM) densified beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) was tested and compared with undensified sanded beech wood as a control. THM and control specimens were bonded with five different soy protein isolate (SPI) based adhesives. Commercial SPI powder was thermally modified in the vacuum chamber at 50 or 100 °C and pH adjusted (to pH 10.0) dispersions in water prepared at 24, 50 or 90 °C. Wettability was determined with measuring the sessile drop contact angles of water. Effective penetrations (EPs) and tensile shear strengths of THM and control specimens were determined. THM and control wood had similar wettability. Although THM wood had lower moisture content than control wood, it absorbed the water more slowly than control wood. THM specimens showed lower EPs than control specimens when comparing individual adhesives due to increased density of THM wood. Adhesives prepared with SPI thermally modified at 50 °C showed statistically significantly lower tensile shear strength of bonded THM specimens than that of bonded control specimens. THM densification had no significant effect on the bonding strengths of adhesives prepared with non-modified SPI and SPI thermally modified at 100 °C.


Control Specimen Tensile Shear Strength Viscoelastic Thermal Compression Prepared Adhesive Adhesive Penetration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge the support of Prof. Franc Pohleven for enabling the use of the vacuum chamber at University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doroteja Vnučec
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jure Žigon
    • 2
  • Marica Mikuljan
    • 3
  • Frederick A. Kamke
    • 4
  • Milan Šernek
    • 5
  • Andreja Kutnar
    • 6
    • 7
  • Andreja Goršek
    • 8
  1. 1.Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia
  2. 2.Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical FacultyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.BREST-POHIŠTVO d.o.o. CerknicaCerknicaSlovenia
  4. 4.Department of Wood Science and EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  5. 5.Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical FacultyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  6. 6.Andrej Marušič InstituteUniversity of PrimorskaKoperSlovenia
  7. 7.Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information TechnologiesUniversity of PrimorskaKoperSlovenia
  8. 8.Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia

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