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Exosomen: Nanostaub?

Exosomes: Nanodust? German version

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Zusammenfassung

Bis vor Kurzem galten Exosomen als Verunreinigung/Staub im Elektronenmikroskop. Diese Sichtweise hat sich in den letzten Jahren dramatisch geändert. Ein neues Forschungsfeld hat sich daraus entwickelt, diese Nanopartikel genauer zu beschreiben und deren Bildung, sowie Funktion zu explorieren. Die Ansicht zur Rolle der Exosomen hat sich von vesikulären Abfalleimern zu biologisch aktiven, selektiv produzierten Partikeln gewandelt. Heutzutage werden sie als neues Botensystem betrachtet, welches Zellen erlaubt, mit entfernteren Zellen zu kommunizieren (vergleichbar mit Hormonen). Von großem wissenschaftlichem Interesse in der Ära der Immuntherapie ist die beobachtete Immunmodulation. Sie stellt attraktive Kandidaten in der Diagnostik und Therapie von Tumorerkrankungen dar.

Abstract

Until recently, exosomes were considered to be dust in electron microscopy. This perception has changed dramatically in the past few years. A new research field has emerged aiming to describe the formation, release, and function of these nanoparticles. The role of exosomes evolved from garbage bins to biologically active, selectively secreted particles that are part of a novel and broader messaging system. They were shown to display immunomodulatory properties. Today, exosomes are regarded as attractive targets for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, especially in the field of oncology.

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Author information

Correspondence to PD Dr. L. Muller.

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Interessenkonflikt

L. Muller gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Für diesen Beitrag wurden von den Autoren keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren durchgeführt. Für die aufgeführten Studien gelten die jeweils dort angegebenen ethischen Richtlinien.

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Muller, L. Exosomen: Nanostaub?. HNO 68, 111–114 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00106-019-00787-y

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Extrazelluläre Vesikel
  • Nanopartikel
  • Elektronenmikroskopie
  • Immunmodulation
  • Medizinische Onkologie

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Microscopy, electron
  • Immunomodulation
  • Medical oncology
  • Extracellular vesicles