HNO

, Volume 58, Issue 7, pp 661–671 | Cite as

Tumoren und tumorähnliche Läsionen der Orbita

Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt eine Übersicht über die häufigen und klinisch relevanten Tumoren der Orbita und deren Behandlung. Im Kindesalter gehören zystische Tumoren wie Dermoid- bzw. Epidermoidzysten zu den häufigste Orbitatumoren. Kapilläre Hämangiome stellen die häufigsten primären gutartigen Tumoren der Orbita dar, sie zeigen sich zumeist im 1. Lebensjahr. Dagegen sind Teratome selten und histologisch meistens benigne. Neurale Tumoren sind z. B. Gliome des Sehnervs, sie gehen in 25–50% der Fälle mit Neurofibromatose einher. Beim Rhabdomyosarkom, einem schnell wachsenden, malignen Orbitatumor, sind Erkrankungsstadium und Lokalisation die wichtigsten prognostischen Faktoren für die Überlebenschance des Kindes. Leukämien können v. a. in den ersten 10 Lebensjahren mit einem Chlorom einhergehen. Als Tumoren des Erwachsenenalters werden u. a. lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen, vaskuläre und zystische Tumoren beschrieben. Neben fibroossären und mesenchymalen Tumoren sind neurale Formen wie Schwannome zu nennen. Sekundäre Tumoren der Orbita manifestieren sich häufig in Nase und Nasennebenhöhlen.

Schlüsselwörter

Orbitatumor Epidermoidzyste Rhabdomyosarkom Schwannom Chlorom 

Tumors and tumor-like lesions of the orbit

Abstract

This article gives an overview of the most common and clinically relevant tumors of the orbit and their treatment. The most common orbital tumors in childhood are cystic tumors, such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts. Capillary hemangiomas are the most common primary benign tumors of the orbit and appear mostly in the first year of life. In contrast teratomas are rare and histologically mostly benign. Neural tumors are, for example, gliomas of the optic nerve and in 25–50% of cases are associated with neurofibromatosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rapidly growing malignant orbital tumor whereby the stage and localization are the most important prognostic factors for survival chance in children. Leukemia can be associated with a chloroma especially in the first decade of life. Lymphoproliferative diseases, vascular and cystic tumors in particular are known as tumors of adulthood. In addition to fibroosseus and mesenchymal tumors, neural forms, such as schwannomas are also important. Secondary tumors of the orbit are often manifested in the nose and paranasal sinuses.

Keywords

Orbital tumor Epidermoid cyst Rhabdomyosarcoma Schwannoma Chloroma 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Augenklinik der St.-Vincentius-Kliniken gAGKarlsruheDeutschland

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