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Der Hautarzt

, Volume 68, Issue 6, pp 466–471 | Cite as

Kontaktallergien der Kopfhaut

  • L. KochEmail author
  • W. Aberer
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Kontaktallergien der Kopfhaut stellen eine wichtige Differenzialdiagnose von Kopfhauterkrankungen dar. Die typischen Effloreszenzen bekräftigen zusammen mit Streuherden, Juckreiz und Anamnese die Verdachtsdiagnose. Da die behaarte Kopfhaut eher unempfindlich gegenüber einer Kontaktdermatitis ist, verursachen hier applizierte Allergene oft Reaktionen um Augen, Ohren und Hals. Potente Allergene, wie z. B. para-Phenylendiamin, können aber durchaus auch auf der behaarten Kopfhaut starke Reaktionen auslösen. Die häufigsten für die Kopfhaut relevanten Allergene finden sich in Haarfarben und Bleichmitteln, Shampoos und Haarspülungen, Produkten für Dauerwelle und Haarglättung sowie in topischen Medikamenten. Neben den aktiven Wirkstoffen sind Vehikel und Konservierungsmittel häufige auslösende Allergene. Mittels topischer Steroide und oraler Antihistaminika kommt es rasch zur Abheilung, nur bei schweren Reaktionen werden systemische Steroide benötigt. Eine adäquate Epikutantestung mittels vorhandener Testreihen, kombiniert mit den Inhaltsstoffen patienteneigener Produkte, bekräftigt oder widerlegt die Diagnose und ermöglicht die Allergenkarenz sowie die Auswahl geeigneter Ersatzprodukte.

Schlüsselwörter

Auslöser Allergene Diagnose Differentialdiagnose Therapie 

Allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp

Abstract

Contact allergy represents an important differential diagnosis to other skin diseases of the scalp. The typical efflorescences, spreading in the periphery, pruritus, and the clinical history support the differential diagnosis. Since the scalp is particularly resistant to contact dermatitis, allergens applied to this area often produce dermatitis of the eyelids, ears and neck. Nevertheless, potent allergens such as para-phenylendiamine can also cause severe reactions of the scalp. The most important allergens eliciting contact allergy of the scalp are found in bleaches and dyes, shampoos and conditioners, products for perm waves and straighteners as well as topical drugs. Besides active ingredients or drugs, vehicles and preservative agents represent additional allergens. The use of topical steroids and oral antihistamines usually results in rapid resolution of the dermatitis, systemic steroids are only necessary in severe cases. Epicutaneous patch testing on the basis of available series combined with the ingredients of the suspected elicitors confirms the diagnosis and facilitates allergen avoidance as well as the selection of alternative products.

Keywords

Trigger Allergens Diagnosis Differential diagnosis Therapy 

Notes

Danksagung

Die Autoren danken Herrn ao. Univ.-Prof. Dr. med. univ. Birger Kränke für die freundliche Bereitstellung seiner klinischen Bilder.

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

L. Koch und W. Aberer geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren. Alle Patienten, die über Bildmaterial oder anderweitige Angaben innerhalb des Manuskripts zu identifizieren sind, haben hierzu ihre schriftliche Einwilligung gegeben.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ. Klinik für Dermatologie und Venerologie, Medizinische Universität GrazGrazÖsterreich

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