Der Chirurg

, 80:854 | Cite as

Dignität von Glomus-caroticum-Tumoren

Literaturübersicht und klinische Erfahrungen
  • D. Grotemeyer
  • S.M. Loghmanieh
  • S. Pourhassan
  • T.A. Sagban
  • F. Iskandar
  • P. Reinecke
  • W. Sandmann
Originalien

Zusammenfassung

Einleitung

Glomus-caroticum-Tumoren sind seltene Paragangliome (Inzidenz 0,012%), die von sympathischen Fasern im Bereich der Karotisbifurkation ausgehen und ein sehr langsames Wachstum haben. Symptomatisch werden sie durch lokale mechanische Kompression benachbarter Gefäß- und Nervenstrukturen. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Diagnostik, Therapie und Verlauf der an der Universität Düsseldorf behandelten Patienten mit Glomustumoren darzustellen und anhand einer Nachuntersuchung, Aussagen über die Rezidivhäufigkeit und Dignität in der Langzeitbeobachtung zu treffen.

Patienten und Methoden

Eingeschlossen in diese retrospektive Studie wurden alle Patienten, die von Januar 1988 bis Juni 2008 an einem Glomustumor behandelt wurden. Zur Nachuntersuchung wurde bei den Patienten eine aktuelle Anamnese, eine Sonographie und Duplexsonographie durchgeführt. Zudem wurde der standardisierte Fragebogen EORTC QLQ-C30 in Verbindung mit dem Zusatzbogen EORTC QLQ-H&N35 ausgefüllt.

Ergebnisse

In dem untersuchten Patientenkollektiv von 36 Patienten (36% Männer, 64% Frauen; durchschnittliches Lebensalter 48,33 Jahre, Spannweite 17–78 Jahre) fand sich eine lokale Schwellung am Hals als Hauptsymptom bei 16 Patienten; Schluckbeschwerden bzw. Heiserkeit traten bei jeweils 5 Patienten auf. Bei einem Patienten bestand präoperativ ein Horner-Syndrom. Insgesamt fanden sich 22 Glomustumoren auf der rechten Seite (52,38%) und 20 Tumoren auf der linken Halsseite (47,62%). Bei 6 Patienten (16,67%) bestand beidseitig ein Glomustumor, von denen 3 im Verlauf beidseitig resiziert wurden und weitere 3 Patienten in der Verlaufskontrolle sind, sodass bei 36 Patienten insgesamt 39 Glomustumoren operativ behandelt wurden. Bei allen 39 Operationen (Primäroperation n=34, Rezidivoperationen n=5) wurden die Glomustumoren makroskopisch in toto reseziert. Vagusanteile wurden in 3 Fällen (7,69%, Shamblin II n=1, Shamblin III n=1) mitreseziert, Gefäßresektionen waren bei 10 Operationen notwendig. Die Überlebensraten der dokumentierten Patienten lagen nach einem Jahr bei 100%, nach 2 Jahren bei 96,3% und nach 5 Jahren bei 92,6%. Bei 2 Patienten wurde ein lokales Rezidiv diagnostiziert; ein Patient wurde nachoperiert und bei einem Patienten besteht eine seit 14 Jahren nicht größenprogrediente Schwellung in der Karotisgabel, die bisher konservativ belassen wurde. Die periphere Nervenschädigung betrug im Langzeitverlauf 12,0% (3/25). Anamnestische oder klinische Hinweise für eine lokale oder periphere Metastase eines Glomustumors haben sich bei keinem Patienten ergeben.

Schlussfolgerungen

Die operative Exstirpation bleibt der einzige kurative Heilungsansatz bei Glomus-caroticum-Tumoren mit einer perioperativen Letalität von 0%. Die Morbidität mit Auftreten eines zentral-neurologischen Defizits ist unter Ausnutzung gefäßchirurgischer Techniken gering (2,56%). Die Radikalität der Resektion findet Ausdruck in der Häufigkeit perioperativer peripher-neurologischer Defizite von 64,10%. Im Langzeitverlauf senkt sich die permanente periphere Nervenbeteiligung auf 12,0%. Aufgrund eines potenziell infiltrierenden und metastatischen Wachstums sind Glomus-caroticum-Tumoren als semimaligne einzuschätzen und damit eine operative Indikationsstellung bei Diagnosestellung indiziert. Ob die Inzidenz dieses seltenen Karotisgabeltumors aufgrund zunehmender Routinediagnostik der Kopf- und Halsregion durch Ultraschall und Schnittbilddiagnostik ansteigt, bleibt abzuwarten.

Schlüsselwörter

Glomus-caroticum-Tumor Paragangliom Malignität Metastasen 

Dignity of carotid body tumors

Review of the literature and clinical experiences

Abstract

Introduction

Tumors of the carotid body are rare paragangliomas (incidence 0.012%) originating from sympathetic fibres of the carotid bifurcation. Growth is slow and they frequently become symptomatic through local mechanical compression of neighboring vascular and neural structures. The aim of this study is to present the diagnosis, therapy and course in patients with a carotid body tumor treated at our department of the Düsseldorf University Hospital and to discuss rates of recurrence and also dignity during the long-term follow-up.

Patients and methods

Included in this retrospective study were all patients treated for a carotid body tumor between January 1988 and June 2008. At follow-up examination the current history was recorded and a physical examination, sonography and duplex sonography were carried out. Furthermore each patient completed the questionnaires QLQ-C30 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the module for head and neck QLQ-H&N35 to assess quality of life.

Results

In our collective of 36 patients consisting of 13 men (36%) and 23 women (64%) with an average age of 48.33 years (range 17–78 years), 16 patients presented with a local neck swelling and 5 patients each had difficulties swallowing or hoarseness, respectively. Preoperatively Horner’s syndrome was found in one patient. A total of 22 tumors were found on the right side of the neck (52.38%), 20 were found on the left side (47.62%) and 6 patients showed a bilateral carotid body tumor (16.67%), 3 of which were bilaterally excised. The other 3 patients are still under surveillance without surgery. Altogether surgery of 39 carotid body tumors was performed in 36 patients. In all 39 cases (primary surgery n=34, recurrence surgery n=5) the tumors were macroscopically excised in toto. Parts of the vagus nerve had to be resected in 3 patients (7.69% Shamblin type II n=1, Shamblin type III n=1) and resection of blood vessels was necessary during 10 operations. The survival rate after 1 year was 100%, after 2 years 96.3% and after 5 years 92.6%. A local recurrence was diagnosed in 2 patients (5.13%). In one patient a second operation was necessary and in the other patient there was a non-progressive swelling in the carotid bifurcation which had existed for 14 years and which was conservatively left untreated. Peripheral neural lesions could be found in 12% (3/25) at long-term follow-up. None of the patients showed evidence of local or remote metastasization of a carotid body tumor.

Conclusions

Surgical extirpation of carotid body tumors can be regarded as the only curative option with an overall mortality of 0%. Morbidity is low when applying vascular surgical techniques (2.56% for central lesions). The incidence of peripheral nervous lesions is high reflecting the radicality of the resection (64.10%) but is outweighed by the benefits. In the long-term follow-up the rate of permanent peripheral neural lesions decreased to 12%. Due to a potentially infiltrating and disseminating growth, carotid body tumors should be regarded as semi-malignant and should therefore be indicated for surgery at the time of diagnosis. Whether the incidence of carotid body tumors will rise due to increased routine diagnostic examination of the head and neck region using sonography and tomography remains to be seen.

Keywords

Carotid body tumor Paraganglioma Malignancy Metastases 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Grotemeyer
    • 1
  • S.M. Loghmanieh
    • 1
  • S. Pourhassan
    • 1
  • T.A. Sagban
    • 1
  • F. Iskandar
    • 1
  • P. Reinecke
    • 2
  • W. Sandmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinik für Gefäßchirurgie und NierentransplantationUniversitätsklinikum der Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für PathologieUniversitätsklinikum der Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfDeutschland

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