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Patientenorientierte Kommunikation in der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung

  • H. FallerEmail author
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Im Zuge der Forderung nach mehr Patientenorientierung im deutschen Gesundheitswesen sieht sich auch die Arzt-Patient-Kommunikation einem Wandlungsprozess ausgesetzt. Stärker als früher sind Ärzte aufgefordert, die kommunikativen Bedürfnisse ihrer Patienten nach Information, Mitwirkung bei medizinischen Entscheidungen und emotionaler Unterstützung zu berücksichtigen. Ein partnerschaftliches Modell der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung erscheint als am besten geeignet, diese Bedürfnisse zu befriedigen und die Betroffenen in die Lage zu versetzen (Empowerment), informierte Entscheidungen über ihre Gesundheitsversorgung zu treffen (partizipative Entscheidungsfindung). Allerdings zeigt eine breite Evidenzlage, wie sie insbesondere für Gespräche zwischen Krebskranken und ihren Ärzten vorliegt, dass die Bedürfnisse der Patienten noch nicht ausreichend thematisiert und befriedigt werden. Das hier bestehende Optimierungspotenzial ist umso ernster zu nehmen, als eine Orientierung der Arzt-Patient-Kommunikation an den Bedürfnissen der Betroffenen nicht nur deren Zufriedenheit, Lebensqualität und Wohlbefinden fördert, sondern wohl auch mit besseren medizinischen Behandlungsergebnissen einhergeht.

Schlüsselwörter

Arzt-Patient-Kommunikation Arzt-Patient-Beziehung Informationsbedürfnis Partizipative Entscheidungsfindung Empowerment 

Patient-centered communication in the physician–patient relationship

Abstract

As a result of increasing demands for more patient-centeredness in the German health care system, physician–patient communication has been subject to transformation. Physicians are being requested to take into account their patients’ communicative needs, including information, shared decision making, and emotional support, more vigorously than they had been in the past. A cooperative model of the physician–patient relationship is considered most suitable for fulfilling these needs and for empowering patients to make informed decisions regarding their own health care. However, a large body of evidence exists—particularly regarding communication between cancer patients and their doctors—that shows that patients’ needs are not adequately addressed or met. This potential for optimization is all the more important because targeting patients’ needs during doctor–patient communication not only improves patients’ satisfaction with the communication, quality of life, and well-being, but may also produce better treatment outcomes.

Keywords

Physician–patient communication Physician–patient relationship Information needs Shared decision making Empowerment 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universität WürzburgWürzburgDeutschland

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