Einflussfaktoren für Asthma bronchiale bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland

Ergebnisse der KiGGS-Studie
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Im vorliegenden Beitrag wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen einer bestehenden Asthmaerkrankung und möglichen diesbezüglichen Einflussfaktoren auf der Datenbasis der „Studie zur Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland“ (KiGGS) untersucht. In dieser bundesweiten Querschnittstudie wurden zwischen 2003 und 2006 17.641 null- bis 17-jährige Kinder und Jugendliche untersucht. Die Datenerfassung umfasste eine ärztliche Untersuchung des Kindes, ein Interview der Eltern und schriftliche Fragebögen. Neben Prävalenzschätzungen wurden multivariate logistische Regressionsanalysen durchgeführt. Zunehmendes Alter und männliches Geschlecht, eine atopische Vorerkrankung des Kindes, eine positive Familienanamnese für allergische Erkrankungen sowie ein niedriges Geburtsgewicht erhöhten das Risiko für Asthma bronchiale signifikant, ebenso Übergewicht und schimmlige Wände in der Wohnung. Das Stillen hatte keine schützende Wirkung. Ein niedriges Alter der Mutter bei der Geburt und Leben in ländlichen oder kleinstädtischen Regionen erwiesen sich als protektiv. Insgesamt zeigte sich, dass die genetische Prädisposition und eine atopische Vorerkrankung des Kindes die stärksten Risikofaktoren für Asthma bronchiale sind. Aber auch Umweltfaktoren (schimmlige Wände, Leben in ländlichen und kleinstädtischen Gemeinden) und einzelne Lebensstilfaktoren spielten eine modifizierende Rolle.

Schlüsselwörter

Asthma bronchiale Risikofaktoren Gesundheitssurvey Kinder Jugendliche 

Determinants of asthma among children and adolescents in Germany

Results of the German Health and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)

Abstract

In this study, associations between current asthma and possible determinants were studied using data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (“Studie zur Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland,” KiGGS). In this nationwide cross-sectional survey, 17,461 subjects aged 0–17 years were examined between 2003 and 2006. Data collection included a medical examination of the child, an interview of the parents, and written questionnaires. Apart from prevalence estimates, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Increasing age and male sex, previous atopic diseases of the child, a positive family history of allergic diseases and low birth weight were significant risk factors of asthma, as were overweight and moldy walls in the residence. Breast feeding was not associated with a reduced risk of asthma. Low age at delivery of the mother and living in rural or provincial regions were shown to be protected. Overall, this study suggests that allergies of the parents and previous atopic disease of the child are the strongest determinants of asthma. However, environmental factors (mold on walls, living in rural and provincial towns) and lifestyle factors could also modify asthma risk.

Keywords

Asthma Risk factors Health survey Children Adolescents 

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Laußmann
    • 1
  • M. Haftenberger
    • 1
  • U. Langen
    • 1
  • D. Eis
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung Epidemiologie und Gesundheitsberichterstattung, Fachgebiet Epidemiologie nicht übertragbarer ErkrankungenRobert Koch-InstitutBerlinDeutschland

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