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Burn-out wirksam prävenieren?

Ein systematischer Review zur Effektivität individuumbezogener und kombinierter Ansätze
  • U. WalterEmail author
  • C.S. Krugmann
  • M. Plaumann
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Vor dem Hintergrund der zunehmenden Thematisierung von Burn-out wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit präventive Maßnahmen wirksam sind. Eine systematische Recherche von Interventionsstudien zur Prävention von Burn-out wurde in den Datenbanken Medline, PsycINFO und PSYNDEX für den Zeitraum von 1995 bis 2011 durchgeführt und über eine Handsuche ergänzt. Insgesamt wurden 33 Studien (34 Publikationen) identifiziert und gereviewed. Davon befassten sich 24 (71%) mit individuumsbezogenen Interventionen, zehn (29%) mit kombinierten (individuums- und arbeitsorganisationsbezogenen) Interventionen. 76% aller Interventionen führten zu positiven Effekten bei Burn-out oder seinen Subkomponenten. 16% der Studien umfassen einen Nacherhebungszeitraum von über zwölf Monaten, das Maximum beträgt drei Jahre. Von diesen zeigen drei positive Effekte auf Burn-out-bezogene Outcomes. Burn-out-Interventionen sind tendenziell wirksam. Ihr Nutzen könnte über Refresherangebote verstärkt werden. Zentral ist die Identifikation wirksamer Elemente präventiver Interventionen. Die weitere Forschung sollte sich auf kombinierte Interventionsprogramme beziehen, nach Risikogruppen differenzieren und langfristig angelegt sein.

Schlüsselwörter

Burn-out Individuumsbezogene Intervention Organisationsbezogene Intervention Prävention Review 

Preventing burnout?

A systematic review of effectiveness of individual and combined approaches

Abstract

Burnout has become an increasing topic of discussion in recent years. Against this background, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs aimed at preventing burnout. Using the databases Medline, PsycINFO, and PSYNDEX, we conducted a systematic search of burnout intervention studies from 1995–2011, completing this by a hand search. A total of 33 primary intervention studies (34 publications) were identified and reviewed. Twenty-four (71%) were person-centered interventions, while 10 (29%) were combined individual and organizational interventions. Of the interventions, 76% had a positive effect on burnout or its subcomponents; 16% of the studies were followed for periods ranging from more than 12 months to 3 years. In three of these studies, the intervention had a positive effect on burnout outcome measures. Burnout intervention programs tend to be effective, and their effects can be enhanced in refresher courses. Future research should focus on combined (person-centered and organization-based) intervention programs, include different risk groups, and provide long-term follow-up.

Keywords

Burnout Person-centered intervention Organization-based intervention Prevention Review 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Epidemiologie, Sozialmedizin und GesundheitssystemforschungMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverDeutschland

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