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Länger leben, länger leiden?

Trends in der Lebenserwartung und Gesundheit
  • G. DoblhammerEmail author
  • D. Kreft
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Im 20. Jahrhundert stieg die Lebenserwartung kontinuierlich an, dabei kam der Zugewinn an Lebensjahren in den letzten Jahrzehnten aus den hohen und höchsten Altersgruppen. Im europäischen Sterblichkeitsgeschehen lassen sich zwei Phasen der Divergenz und Konvergenz identifizieren, eine dritte Phase deutet sich in einer neuen Divergenz der Sterblichkeit unter den Höchstaltrigen ab. Frauen haben eine höhere Lebenserwartung als Männer, was auf biologische Faktoren, Unterschiede im Lebensstil und in der Inanspruchnahme medizinischer Versorgung, aber auch auf die Einstellung zur Gesundheit zurückgeführt werden kann. Die Ergebnisse zu Trends in der Gesundheit sind uneinheitlich. Ursache sind die verschiedenen Dimensionen von Gesundheit genauso wie eine unzureichende Datenlage. Generell gilt, dass die Prävalenz von Erkrankungen und Symptomen angestiegen ist, funktionelle Beeinträchtigungen und ADL (Activities of Daily Living, Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens)-Behinderungen jedoch rückläufig sind. Keine Aussagen können aufgrund fehlender Daten über Trends im Alter von 80 Jahren und danach gemacht werden. In absoluten Werten steigt mit der Lebenserwartung auch die Zahl der Jahre, die ohne Beeinträchtigungen verbracht werden. Der Anteil an gesunden Lebensjahren entwickelt sich stabil bis leicht positiv. Eine Expansion der Morbidität als Resultat einer steigenden Lebenserwartung kann damit verworfen werden.

Schlüsselwörter

Lebenserwartung Sterblichkeit Lebenserwartung in Gesundheit Health Ratio Gesundheit 

Live longer, suffer more?

Trends in life expectancy and health

Abstract

During the 20th century, life expectancy has been continuously increasing with the majority of the additional years resulting from decreasing mortality among the old and oldest old in the last few decades. Two phases of convergence and divergence in European mortality have been identified, with a possible new phase of divergence taking place among the oldest old. Over this period, women have always been living longer than men. Explanations for this phenomenon include not only biological factors and differences in lifestyle and health care utilization, but also differences in reporting patterns. Trends in health do not follow a clear direction. Reasons are the different dimensions of health as well as inadequate data. In general, the prevalence of morbidity has been increasing, while functional limitations and ADL disabilities have been decreasing. Due to a lack of data, no information exists for trends among the oldest old at age 80 and above. In absolute terms, the number of healthy years has been increasing with increasing life expectancy. In relative terms, they have been stable, probably slightly increasing in some countries. These trends suggest that increasing life expectancy does not result in an increase in morbidity.

Keywords

Life expectancy Mortality Healthy life expectancy Health ratio Health 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Soziologie und DemographieUniversität RostockRostockDeutschland
  2. 2.Rostocker Zentrum zur Erforschung des Demografischen WandelsRostockDeutschland
  3. 3.Deutsche Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, Bonn (DZNE)BonnDeutschland
  4. 4.Max-Planck-Institut für demografische ForschungRostockDeutschland

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