Stellungnahmen des Arbeitskreises Blut des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit
Bekanntmachung Mitteilungen des Arbeitskreises Blut des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit


  1. 1.
    Wright PF, Webster RG (2001) Orthomyxoviruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, et al. (eds.) Fields Virology. 4th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 1533 ffGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scholtissek C (1985) Stability of infectious influenza A viruses at low pH and at elevated temperature. Vaccine 3(Suppl 1):215–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fouchier RA, Munster V, Wallensten A, et al. (2005) Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls. J Virol 79:2814–2822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rota PA, Wallis TR, Harmon MW, et al. (1990) Cocirculation of two distinct evolutionary lineages of influenza type B virus since 1983. Virology 175:59–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nerome R, Hiromoto Y, Sugita S, et al. (1998) Evolutionary characteristics of influenza B virus since its first isolation in 1940: dynamic circulation of deletion and insertion mechanism. Arch Virol 143:1569–1583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scholtissek C, Rohde W, Von Hoyningen V, Rott R (1978) On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2 and H3N2. Virology 87:13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kawaoka Y, Krauss S, Webster RG (1989) Avian-tohuman transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. J Virol 63(11):4603–4608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lyytikäinen O, Hoffmann E, Timm H, et al. (1998) Influenza A outbreak among adolescents in a ski hostel. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 17(2):128–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thomas P, Riffelmann M, Schweiger B, et al. (2003) Fatal influenza A virus infection in a child vaccinated against influenza. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22(2):201–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laing R, Slater W, Coles C, et al. (2001) Community-acquired pneumonia in Christchurch and Waikato 1999–2000: microbiology and epidemiology. N Z Med J 114:488–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oliveira EC, Marik PE, Colice G (2001) Influenza pneumonia: a descriptive study. Chest 119:1717–1723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    de Jong MD, Bach VC, Phan TQ, et al. (2005) Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma. N Engl J Med 352:686–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beigel JH, Farrar J, Han AM, et al. Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on human influenza A/H5 (2005) Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. N Engl J Med 353(13):1374–1385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yu H, Shu Y, Hu S, et al. (2006) The first confirmed human case of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Mainland China. Lancet 367(9504):84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Webster RG (1998) Influenza: An Emerging Disease. Emerg Infect Dis 4:436–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Webster RG (2002) The importance of animal influenza for human disease. Vaccine 20:S16–S20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gregory V, Bennett M, Orkhan MH, et al. (2002) Emergence of influenza A (H1N2) reassortant viruses in the human population during 2001. Virology 300:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fauci AS (2006) Seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness: science and countermeasures. J Infect Dis 194:S73–S76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zucs P, Buchholz U, Haas W, Uphoff H (2005) Influenza associated excess mortality in Germany, 1985–2001. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2:6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arbeitsgemeinschaft Influenza (AGI) Saisonberichte. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, et al. (2003) Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA 289:179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schweiger B, Zadow I, Heckler R (2002) Antigenic drift and variability of influenza viruses. Med Microbiol Immunol 191:133–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schweiger B (2006) Molecular characterization of human influenza viruses – a look back on the last 10 years. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 119 (3–4):167–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schweiger B (2001) Nationale und globale Influenzasurveillance als Basis der jährlichen Impfstoffempfehlung. Bundesgesundheitsbl – Gesundheitsforsch – Gesundheitsschutz 44:1153–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coonrod JD, Karathanasis P, Betts RF, Donofrio JC (1988) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of core antigens for clinical diagnosis of influenza. J Med Virology 25:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Johnston SLG, Siegel CS (1991) A comparison of direct immunofluorescence, shell vial culture, and conventional cell culture for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 14:131–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gleaves CA, Brown JA (1993) Detection of influenza A in clinical specimens and cell culture fluid by a commercial EIA. Clin Diagn Virol 1:123–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ruest A, Michaud S, Deslandes S, Frost EH (2003) Comparison of the Directigen Flu A+B test, the QuickVue Influenza test, and clinical case definition to viral culture and reverse transcription-PCR for rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 41(8):3487–3493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Booth S, Baleriola C, Rawlinson WD (2006) Comparison of two rapid influenza A/B test kits with reference methods showing high specificity and sensitivity for influenza A infection. J Med Virol 78(5):619–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Donofrio JC, Coonrod JD, Davidson JN, Betts RF (1992) Detection of influenza A and B in respiratory secretions with the polymerase chain reaction. PCR Meth Applicat 1:263–268Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wright KE, Wilson GAR, Novosad D, et al. (1995) Typing and subtyping of influenza viruses in clinical samples by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 33(5):1180–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Claas ECJ, Sprenger MJW, Kleter GEM, et al (1992) Type-specific identification of influenza viruses A, B and C by the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 39:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yamada A, Imanishi J (1992) Detection of influenza B virus in throat swabs using the polymerase chain reaction. Acta Virol 36:320–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schweiger B, Lange I, Heckler R, et al. (1994) Rapid detection of influenza A neuraminidase subtypes by cDNA amplification coupled to a simple DNA enzyme immunoassay. Arch Virol 139:439–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cherian T, Bobo L, Steinhoff MC, et al. (1994) Use of PCR-enzyme immunoassay for identification of influenza A virus matrix RNA in clinical samples negative for cultivable virus. J Clin Microbiol 32(3):623–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang WD, Evans DH (1991) Detection and identification of human influenza viruses by the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 33:165–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schweiger B, Zadow I, Heckler R, et al. (2000) Application of a fluorogenic PCR assay for typing and subtyping of influenza viruses in respiratory samples. J Clin Microbiol 38:1552–1558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    WHO global influenza preparedness plan. The role of WHO and recommendations for national measures before and during pandemics. WHO/CDS/CSR/GIP/2005.5.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bekanntmachung der Richtlinien zur Gewinnung von Blut und Blutbestandteilen und zur Anwendung von Blutprodukten (Hämotherapie) gemäß §§ 12 und 18 des Transfusionsgesetztes (TFG) (Novelle 2005) vom 19. September 2005. Bundesanzeiger (Sonderheft) Nr. 209a, Jahrgang 57, vom 5.11.2005Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nichol KL (1999) Complications of influenza and benefits of vaccination. Vaccine 17:S47–S52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vu T, Farish S, Jenkins M, Kelly H (2002) A metaanalysis of effectiveness of influenza vaccine in persons aged 65 years and over living in the community. Vaccine 20:1831–1836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hayden FG (2006) Antiviral resistance in influenza viruses – implications for management and pandemic response. N Engl J Med 354:785–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hayden FG, Pavia AT (2006) Antiviral management of seasonal and pandemic influenza. J Infect Dis 194(Suppl 2):S119–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cheung CL, Rayner JM, Smith GJ, et al. (2006) Distribution of amantadine-resistant H5N1 avian influenza variants in Asia. J Infect Dis 193(12):1626–1629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baz M, Abed Y, McDonald J, Boivin G (2006) Characterization of multidrug-resistant influenza A/H3N2 viruses shed during 1 year by an immunocompromised child. Clin Infect Dis 43(12):1555–1561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Le QM, KisoM, Someya K, et al. (2005) Avian flu: isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus. Nature 437(7062):1108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48. Biologische-Arbeitsstoffe/ABAS/aus-dem-ABAS/ pdf/Beschluss609-Dezember2006.pdfGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lehmann NI, Gust ID (1971) Viraemia in influenza. A report of two cases. Med J Aust 2:1166–1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stanley ED, Jackson GG (1966) Viremia in Asian influenza. Trans Assoc Am Phys 79:376–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Khakpour M, Saidi A, Naficy K (1969) Proved viraemia in Asian influenza (Hong Kong variant) during incubation period. Brit Med J 4:208–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    de Jong MD, Simmons CP, Thanh TT, et al. (2006) Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia. Nat Med 12(10):1203–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kreil TR, Unger U, Orth SM, et al. (2007) H5N1 influenza virus and the safety of plasma products. Transfusion 47:452–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2007

Personalised recommendations