Varizellen in der Schwangerschaft und bei Neugeborenen

Originalien und Übersichtsarbeiten

Zusammenfassung

Varizellen (Windpocken) gehören zu den häufigsten impfpräventablen Erkrankungen in Deutschland. Während der Schwangerschaft kann die Erkrankung zu schweren Folgen für die Schwangere selbst sowie für den Fetus bzw. das Neugeborene führen. Für schwangere Frauen ist das Risiko für eine Varizellenpneumonie, die als medizinischer Notfall anzusehen ist, erhöht. Zwischen der 5. und 24. Schwangerschaftswoche können Windpocken zum fetalen Varizellensyndrom führen. Bei einer mütterlichen Erkrankung in den letzten Schwangerschaftswochen oder kurz nach der Entbindung kann der Erreger Varizellen des Neugeborenen hervorrufen. Geschieht dies in einem Zeitraum von 5 Tagen vor bis zu 2 Tagen nach der Geburt, ist mit lebensbedrohlichen disseminierten neonatalen Varizellen zu rechnen. Mit den derzeit zur Verfügung stehenden diagnostischen, immunprophylaktischen und therapeutischen Maßnahmen besteht die Möglichkeit, diese schwerwiegenden Folgen von Varizellen während der Gravidität zu verhindern.

Schlüsselwörter

Varicella-Zoster-Virus Schwangerschaft Fetales Varizellensyndrom Neonatale Varizellen Varizellenpneumonie 

Varicella during pregnancy and in neonates

Abstract

Varicella belongs to the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in Germany. During pregnancy, varicella may have serious consequences for the pregnant women and for the fetus or newborn. Pregnant women who contract varicella are at risk of pneumonia which must be regarded as a medical emergency. Chicken pox between the 5th and 24th weeks of pregnancy may lead to the congenital varicella syndrome. In case of maternal varicella during the last few weeks of pregnancy or shortly after delivery, the virus can cause chicken pox in the newborn. Life-threaten ing disseminated neonatal varicella must be expected if the mother develops chicken pox between 5 days before and 2 days after delivery. Using currently available diagnostics, immuno-prophylactic and therapeutic opportunities, these serious consequences of varicella during pregnancy can be prevented.

Keywords

Varicella-zoster virus Pregnancy Congenital varicella syndrome Neonatal varicella Varicella pneumonia 

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Friedrich-Schiller-UniversitätJenaBRD
  2. 2.Institut für Virologie und Antivirale TherapieFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaBRD

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