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Der Anaesthesist

, Volume 56, Issue 11, pp 1170–1180 | Cite as

Übelkeit und Erbrechen in der postoperativen Phase

Experten- und evidenzbasierte Empfehlungen zu Prophylaxe und Therapie
  • C.C. ApfelEmail author
  • P. Kranke
  • S. Piper
  • D. Rüsch
  • H. Kerger
  • M. Steinfath
  • K. Stöcklein
  • D.R. Spahn
  • T. Möllhoff
  • K. Danner
  • A. Biedler
  • M. Hohenhaus
  • B. Zwissler
  • O. Danzeisen
  • H. Gerber
  • F.-J. Kretz
Medizin aktuell

Zusammenfassung

Bislang existieren für den deutschen Sprachraum keine expertenbasierten Handlungsempfehlungen zur Vermeidung oder Therapie von „postoperative nausea and vomiting“ (postoperative Übelkeit und Erbrechen, PONV). Ziel war daher die Entwicklung von Empfehlungen, aus denen im klinikspezifischen Kontext „standard operating procedures“ (SOPs) abgeleitet werden können. Ein anästhesiologisch besetztes Expertengremium bearbeitete relevante Schlüsselthemen in Arbeitsgruppen, die anschließend im Plenum diskutiert wurden. Die Empfehlungen sollten sich auf Erkenntnisse stützen, zu denen umfassende und vertrauenswürdige Daten vorliegen. Einzelne Risikofaktoren, wie z. B. die Anamnese des Patienten, besitzen, isoliert betrachtet, keine ausreichende Sensitivität und Spezifität, um anhand dessen klinisch rationale Entscheidungen zu treffen. Im Gegensatz dazu berücksichtigen vereinfachte Risikoscores mehrere Faktoren und ermöglichen folglich eine zuverlässigere Risikoeinschätzung. Einzelne antiemetische Interventionen zur Vermeidung von PONV sind mit einer relativen Risikoreduktion von ca. 30% im Allgemeinen vergleichbar effektiv. Dieses scheint für die total intravenöse Anästhesie (TIVA) ebenso wie für Dexamethason und andere Antiemetika (Dimenhydrinat, Droperidol, Serotoninantagonisten, transdermales Scopolamin) zu gelten. Eine adäquate, hinreichend hohe Dosierung ist dabei Voraussetzung, die bei Kindern natürlich gewichtsadaptiert erfolgen sollte. Während die relative Risikoreduktion weitgehend unabhängig vom Kontext ist, sind die absolute Risikoreduktion und somit die „number needed totreat“ (NNT) einer Prophylaxe vor allem vom Patientenrisiko abhängig. Bei einem niedrigen Risiko erscheint eine Prophylaxe nicht sinnvoll. Bei mittlerem Risiko sollte eine Prophylaxe nicht vorenthalten werden. Ein hohes Risiko erfordert ein multimodales Vorgehen, das im Einzelfall angepasst werden sollte (medizinisches Risiko, Patientenpräferenz). Die Therapie von PONV sollte prompt, vorzugsweise mit zuvor noch nicht verwendeten Antiemetika erfolgen. Das Gremium schlägt Algorithmen vor, bei denen die Indikation und das Ausmaß einer Prophylaxe vor allem vom Patientenrisiko abhängig sind. Unter Berücksichtigung lokaler Gegebenheiten sollten diese eine evidenzbasierte Erstellung von SOPs erleichtern.

Schlüsselwörter

Evidence based medicine Expertenerklärung Antimetika Postoperative Übelkeit und Erbrechen (PONV) 

Nausea and vomiting in the postoperative phase

Expert- and evidence-based recommendations for prophylaxis and therapy

Abstract

There are no consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in German speaking countries. This meeting was intended to develop such guidelines on which individual health care facilities can derive their specific standard operating procedures (SOPs). Anesthesiologists reviewed published literature on key topics which were subsequently discussed during two meetings. It was emphasized that recommendations were based on the best available evidence. The clinical relevance of individual risk factors should be viewed with caution since even well proven risk factors, such as the history of PONV, do not allow the identification of patients at risk for PONV with a satisfactory sensitivity or specificity. A more useful approach is the use of simplified risk scores which consider the presence of several risk factors simultaneously. Most individual antiemetic interventions for the prevention of PONV have comparable efficacy with a relative risk reduction of about 30%. This appears to be true for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) as well as for dexamethasone and other antiemetics; assuming a sufficiently high, adequate and equipotent dosage which should be weight-adjusted in children. As the relative risk reduction is context independent and similar between the interventions, the absolute risk reduction of prophylactic interventions is mainly dependent on the patient’s individual baseline risk. Prophylaxis is thus rarely warranted in patients at low risk, generally needed in patients with a moderate risk and should include a multimodal approach in patients at high risk for PONV. Therapeutic interventions of PONV should be administered promptly using an antiemetic which has not been used before. The group suggests algorithms where prophylactic interventions are mainly dependent on the patient’s risk for PONV. These algorithms should provide evidence-based guidelines allowing the development of SOPs/policies which take local circumstances into account.

Keywords

Evidence-based medicine Consensus declaration Antiemetics Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Dr. C.C. Apfel erhielt in den letzten zwei Jahren Honorare für Vorträge und Beratungstätigkeit von GlaxoSmithKline (Philadelphia, PA), Merck (Whitehouse Station, NJ), MGI-Pharma (Bloomington, MN) und Fresenius Kabi (Bad Homburg). Er war auch an klinischen Studien beteiligt, die von Merck (Whitehouse Station, NJ) and MGI-Pharma (Bloomington, MN) unterstützt wurden.

Dr. P. Kranke, MBA, erhielt in den letzten zwei Jahren Honorare für Vorträge und Beratungstätigkeit von GlaxoSmithKline GmbH & Co. KG (München, Deutschland), Bayer Healthcare AG (Wuppertal, Deutschland), Fresenius Kabi Deutschland GmbH (Bad Homburg, Deutschland), Baxter Deutschland GmbH (Erlangen, Deutschland) und Pfizer GmbH (Karlsruhe, Deutschland).

Prof. D.R. Spahn erhielt in den letzten 12 Monaten Honorare für Beratungstätigkeit der Firmen B.Braun (Melsungen und Schweiz) sowie Novo Nordisk, Dänemark.

Prof. B. Zwissler erhielt in den letzten Jahren Honorare für Vorträge von Schering (Berlin), Abbott (Wiesbaden) und Fresenius-Kabi (Bad Homburg).

Prof. M. Steinfath hat in den letzten Jahren Vorträge auf Symposien und Fortbildungsveranstaltungen gehalten, die von den Firmen GlaxoSmithKline GmbH & Co. KG (München, Deutschland) und Fresenius-Kabi (Bad-Homburg, Deutschland) unterstützt wurden.

Priv.-Doz. Dr. S. Piper, Prof. T. Möllhoff, Dr. K. Danner, Dr. A. Biedler, Dr. O. Danzeisen, Dr. D. Rüsch, Prof. H. Gerber, Dr. M. Hohenhaus, Priv.-Doz. Dr. H. Kerger, Prof. F.J. Kretz, Dr. K. Stöcklein und Dr. J. Speck-Hergenröder gaben keine Interessenkonflikte innerhalb der letzten zwölf Monate an.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • C.C. Apfel
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Kranke
    • 2
  • S. Piper
    • 3
  • D. Rüsch
    • 4
  • H. Kerger
    • 5
  • M. Steinfath
    • 6
  • K. Stöcklein
    • 7
  • D.R. Spahn
    • 8
  • T. Möllhoff
    • 9
  • K. Danner
    • 10
  • A. Biedler
    • 11
  • M. Hohenhaus
    • 12
  • B. Zwissler
    • 13
  • O. Danzeisen
    • 14
  • H. Gerber
    • 15
  • F.-J. Kretz
    • 16
  1. 1.Perioperative Clinical Research Core, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative CareUniversity of California, San Francisco,UCSF Medical Center at Mt. ZionSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie Universität WürzburgWürzburgDeutschland
  3. 3.Klinik für Anaesthesiologie und Operative IntensivmedizinKlinikum LudwigshafenLudwigshafenDeutschland
  4. 4.Klinik für Anästhesie und IntensivtherapieUniversitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg, Standort MarburgMarburgDeutschland
  5. 5.Abteilung AnästhesieEvangelisches DiakoniekrankenhausFreiburgDeutschland
  6. 6.Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Operative IntensivmedizinUniversitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus KielKielDeutschland
  7. 7.Klinik für AnaesthesiologieUniversitätsklinikum DüsseldorfDüsseldorfDeutschland
  8. 8.Service d’AnesthesiologieCHUVLausanneSchweiz
  9. 9.Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin und SchmerztherapieMarienhospital AachenAachenDeutschland
  10. 10.Institut für Anästhesiologie und NotfallmedizinWestpfalz-Klinikum GmbHKaiserslauternDeutschland
  11. 11.Klinik für Anästhesie und IntensivmedizinKath. Kliniken Essen-NordEssenDeutschland
  12. 12.Klinik für Anästhesiologie und operative IntensivmedizinKlinikum NürnbergNürnbergDeutschland
  13. 13.Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin und SchmerztherapieUniversität FrankfurtFrankfurtDeutschland
  14. 14.Anästhesiologische UniversitätsklinikUniversität FreiburgFreiburgDeutschland
  15. 15.Institut für AnästhesieKantonsspital LuzernLuzernDeutschland
  16. 16.Klinik für AnästhesiologieKlinikum Stuttgart, OlgahospitalStuttgartDeutschland

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