Der Anaesthesist

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 177–192 | Cite as

Pharyngolaryngeale Beschwerden nach Allgemeinanästhesien

Anästhesiologische und laryngologische Aspekte
CME Weiterbildung • Zertifizierte Fortbildung

Zusammenfassung

Pharyngolaryngeale Beschwerden gehören neben Schmerzen, Nausea und Vomitus zu den meistgenannten postoperativen Beschwerden nach Allgemeinanästhesien. Heiserkeit, Halsschmerzen und Stimmlippenläsionen beeinträchtigen neben der sozialen Interaktion ggf. auch die berufliche Leistungsfähigkeit. Mukosaschwellungen und Stimmlippenhämatome gehören zu den häufigsten laryngealen Verletzungen. Stimmlippenlähmungen sind deutlich seltener. Kenntnisse über pathophysiologische Aspekte und assoziierte Faktoren zur pharyngolaryngealen Morbidität sind wichtige Eckpfeiler für die Qualitätssicherung im perioperativen Atemwegsmanagement. In dieser Übersicht wird im Speziellen auf Auswirkungen von Endotrachealtuben und Larynxmasken auf die pharyngolaryngeale Morbidität, Aspekte der Schilddrüsen- und Thoraxchirurgie, Besonderheiten in der bariatrischen, geburtshilflichen und pädiatrischen Anästhesie sowie medikolegale Aspekte eingegangen.

Schlüsselwörter

Pharyngolaryngeale Beschwerden Stimmlippenläsion Perioperatives Atemwegsmanagement Allgemeinanästhesie Medikolegale Aspekte 

Laryngopharyngeal morbidity following general anaesthesia

Anaesthesiological and laryngological aspects

Abstract

Laryngeal and pharyngeal complaints are among the subjective problems most frequently reported by patients after general anaesthesia involving endotracheal intubation, others being pain, nausea and vomiting. Hoarseness, sore throat, and vocal cord injuries restrict patients’ social lives, and in some cases also their working lives. The most frequent types of laryngeal injury are swollen mucosa and haematoma of the vocal cords. Vocal cord paralysis occurs much less frequently. Knowledge of the pathophysiological aspects and other relevant factors associated with laryngopharyngeal morbidity are essential cornerstones of quality assurance in perioperative respiratory tract management. In this review specific sections are devoted to the implications of anaesthesia involving endotracheal intubation and laryngeal masks for laryngopharyngeal morbidity, and also particular aspects of thyroid gland surgery, cardiothoracic and bariatric surgery and obstetric and paediatric anaesthesia, and medicolegal aspects.

Keywords

Laryngopharyngeal problems Vocal cord injuries Perioperative respiratory tract management General anaesthesia Medicolegal aspects 

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik fürAnästhesiologie und IntensivmedizinSpital ZollikerbergZollikerbergSchweiz
  2. 2.Freiburger Institut für MusikermedizinUniversitätsklinik Freiburg im BreisgauDeutschland

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